Beginning of the war. Azerbaijan in the annexationist plans of the struggled parties. Mobilization of forces of the people for reflection of aggression of an enemy.
The international situation in 30 years has become much more complicated. The opportunities of continuation of struggle with peace ways behind world domination, behind sources of raw material and the markets, for redistributions of spheres of influences were lost. Above the world has hung danger of new World War. England and France tried to keep the colonies, to get new spheres of influence, to oppose Germany and USSR with the purpose to weaken both, to render a mortal blow to a fascism and communism, which aspired to dominate above the world. Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to get the raw and trade markets, and also the spheres of influence, which they almost had no. USA, which was the supporter of preservation of an existing political situation in Europe, intended to consolidate the positions on East and Southeast Asia. England, USA and France most of all was disturbed by existing danger of connection material riches of USSR with technological opportunities of Germany. Therefore, they, it is possible to tell, almost helped the fascists to receive authority and will became stronger in it. These countries looked to maintenance interests of Germany in Central Europe, to Munich bargain (September 29, 1938), which has agreed to attach to Germany of Austria and Czechoslovakia, as means delivering of a fascism against communism. For strengthening the positions in Near East, they aspired to take possession of Southeast Europe, Black Sea straits, Southern Caucasus, especialy of Azerbaijan and Baku petroleum. USSR wanted to take in the sphere of influence territory from Finland up to the Persian gulf, Bulgaria, to liquidate the right of Japan on productions of petroleum and coal in Sakhalin, to grasp east grounds (up to a line Керзон) of Poland, and as the Baltic countries, Western Ukraine, Western Belorussia, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, to create military bases on Bosporus and Dardanell. USSR aspired to a deepening of the contradictions between the western countries, their easing as a result of military collisions, to creation of the appropriate conditions for global communist revolution, growth of number of the countries with a communist mode.
Any of the large states did not concern to the Soviet empire as to serious war-economy force and potential ally. It was natural: many generals of the USSR army were announced “an enemy of the people”, the army has remained, how to tell, without the chapter, manufacture was based to the non-economic laws. The foreign countries looked on USSR as at artificial union of the peoples, which by force were incorporated and did not trust on its stability. The opportunities of barracks socialism in transformation the country in uniform military camp in extreme conditions were not correctly estimated. At the same time, any of these countries did not want that USSR approached with other states. Not by serious attempts for creation System of the International Safety, on the one hand USSR, which was the initiator of creation of this system, and on the other hand England and France aspired to keep each other from a conclusion of peace with Germany. Therefore, negotiation, which five months since March, 1939 proceeded were ineffectual.
Germany, which came nearer with England and France and together with them has put Japan against USSR, faster having made a conclusion from a victory of Red Army in Far East (Red Army in July, – August 1939 has routed armies of Japan in regions of Khassan gol and Khalkhin gol.), having convinced that can not achieve the purpose in east yet, offered union to USSR to conquer of Western Europe. In August 23, 1939 the contract about a non-aggression within ten years was concluded between Germany and the USSR. By this way the USSR was rescued from danger to conduct war in two fronts – in west and in east, has received time for a strengthening of the defense capability of the country (though not absolutely effectively has used it), has achieved that the war between the large groupings of the capitalist states began. In that time V. M. Molotov (Minister of foreign affairs USSR) wrote that, to conduct war now against a fascism is a crime.
The Second World War began in September 1, 1939 with an attack of fascist Germany on Poland. In September 28 the USSR and Germany have concluded the contract about the friendship and borders and breaking the sovereign rights of the states have divided the East Europe into spheres of influence among themselves. In September the Soviet Army by an attack has conquered Western Ukraine and Western Byelorussia. The USSR by plot began war with Finland. According the Moscow contract (March 12 1940) concluded between them the USSR had expanded the borders to the north of Leningrad, had taken in rent of a peninsula Khanko for the military purposes. In autumn of 1939 the USSR had concluded the contracts on the mutual help with governments of the Baltic republics, had placed troops in their territory. In summer of 1940 the Soviet government by military blackmail had forced Romania to repudiate from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Last never included into structure of Russia and was not mentioned in Soviet-German confidential protocols, therefore Germany had expressed discontent. In November, 1940 Germany had offered to the Soviet Union to join the Tripartite pact signed in September of this year by Germany, Italy and Japan and to take part in capture of British India and other southern territories. However Stalin was more interested in new purchases on Balkan, than in far India, and it did not suit Hitler.
In December 14, 1939 the USSR as the aggressive state was excluded from structure of the League of Nations.
Having secured itself from east, fascist Germany and its ally Italy for short term have grasped or have subordinated to the influence almost all countries of Western and Central Europe. Within 1939-1941 years the peoples of Poland, Norway, Denmark, France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia and Greece were grasped by the German fascists. The hopes of the USSR that wars between the capitalist countries will be long and wearisome were not justified. The fascist block had subordinated to itself military and economic potential of the conquered countries. In comparison with an initial period of war the armed forces of Germany have increased twice. The mutual claims on Balkan finally have upset union of Germany and USSR. On ways of Germany to the world domination there was only Soviet Union. June 22, 1941 fascist Germany has attacked on the USSR. The plan “Barbarosse”, based on strategy of “lightning war”, which provided by drawing several strong impacts to break Red Army and, pressing home an attack, till winter to leave on a line Arkhangelsk – Astrakhan. In the annexationist plans of Germany the special place held of Azerbaijan, petroleum Baku having the important strategic and geopolitical meaning. The German government as a primary factor in realization of annexationist policy in east considered assignment of the Ukrainian bread and Baku petroleum. On the basis of “The Plan of management of Caucasus”, made by Rossenburg, was supposed the creation of managements of Azerbaijan, Georgian, Mountain-Caucasian, Cuban and Terek. All this managements submitted to Caucasian Reichcommissariat. After a victory above the USSR, Germany intended to continue war and to grasp territories up to the Persian gulf and Indian ocean. In territories, where lived the Turkish peoples, Germany planned creation of the state, dependent on it – Turkistan. Structure of this state alongside with Northern and Southern Azerbaijan should enter Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Bashkirdistan, Tatarstan, the Crimea, Northern Caucasus, Western China and Afghanistan.
It was supposed to charge production, processing and with transportation of the Baku petroleum German “continental petroleum company”. The chiefs of the large industrial enterprises of Azerbaijan were already nominated.
Concerning Baku Hitler had the special plan. July 16, 1941 at governmental Meeting he has informed, that after capture of Baku this city would turn in strategically important for Germany military item. The detailed plans – cards of all important industrial and military objects of Absheron and Baku were prepared.
About the beginning of the war, taking place on western borders military parts of the USSR which were not completed up to the end, not maintaining onslaught, well armed and having battle experience German troops and their allies, carrying the large losses, receded.
The fascist block hoped for speed rout of the Soviet Army, But, Germany as in the plans, and actions had underestimated of opportunities of a totalitarian control system in the USSR, its ability in short terms to mobilize potential of the country and to transform it into uniform military camp. With the beginning of war the Soviet manual has managed to mobilize all peoples of empire on rebuff to an aggressor. June 30, 1941 all authority in the country was concentrated in hands of State Committee of Defense, which chairman became I. V. Stalin. The ideological and political work in the country was reconstructed. Was offered the slogan “All for front, all for a victory”. In a month was created the Main Management of Rear. August 25, 1941 the Soviet Army was included in North of Iran – Southern Azerbaijan. 77 Azerbaijan division took part in this operation too. USSR could consolidate the southern borders.
As well as in other regions of empire, in Azerbaijan was consolidated the administrative device of management. The large role began to play in it bodies of State Security and Internal affairs, party committees, and created at them new branch departments, political departments at Machine-Tractor Stations .
More than 40 thousand young men and girl of Azerbaijan have submitted applications to military commissariats with the request of sending them to army in the first weeks of war. Till august in Republic of 123 thousands men have entered the name in a national home guard. At the end of 1941 in stracture of a national home guard were already of 187 thousand citizens, including more than 30 thousand women. For struggle against sabotage, gangsterism 87 fighting batallions including 12 thousand men, and also 1124 groups of self-defense, 15 thousand groups of an anti-aircraft defense were created. In auxiliary groups of fighting batallions and group of self-defense were involved more than 44 thousand men. In Azerbaijan were organized in August, of 1941 402-nd, in October 223, in March, – September of 1942 416-th, in August – September 271-st national rifle divisions. In total for 1941-1945 years from Azerbaijans about 640 thousand citizens, including more than 10 thousand women were mobilized in lines of the Soviet Army.
For a short interval of time the national economy of Azerbaijan SSR was transferred to the militarian road. It was very difficult. Financially technical base of economy was much more weakened. Were sharply reduced a capital investment to an industry and agriculture. From Azerneftcombinat have selected 161 tractors, 1 155 motor vehicles, 694 horses for need of army.Only per 1941-1942 years for these purposes from collective farms were taken 5457 cargo and 672 other of a motor vehicle, 476 tractors and 50 thousand horses. Were reduced, and then absolutely stopped import of materials and equipment for the enterprises from the central regions. In 1941 some factories of petroleum mechanical engineering were moved to east. In 1942 was suspended manufactures of the petroleum equipment. Level of production of petroleum was steadily reduced. In 2000 petroleum chinks have suspended work. One third workers of a petroleum industry were caused to army. A situation were such and in mechanical engineering, transport and in other branches of economy. Only in 1941 from collective farms 225 thousand of the workers were mobilized in army or on work in an industry. Housewifes, teenagers, veterans of work, invalids of war, able-bodied people were involved on work. The short-term rates of qualification were created. In republic worked 28 factory schools, 12 schools of craft, 17 schools of agricultural craft. 2 railway schools. By this way were prepared more than 43 thousand the qualified workers the staff. Since June 26 the holidays were abolished ( in a place them paid of money), the working day was lengthened till 11 hours. The discipline of work has become stronger. Was determined punishment deprivation of freedom for 5-8 years behind a unwarranted leaving from work. Were established a rationing system on sale of products (since November, 1941) and industrial (since April, 1942) goods. The workers of a petroleum industry and defenсе enterprises received the raised norms.At the enterprises there was a struggle for fulfilment of the plan on 200, 300 percents, the brigades “Front-line soldier”, “Komsomolets” were created. The industry began to let out production for front.
Baku has turned to one of the main military arsenals of the Soviet Army. Despite of shortage of engineering and the labours (the production of petroleum these years has decreased twice and in 1945 has made all of 11,1 thousand tons.), Baku within war have given to the country about 75 millions tons of petroleum. It has made more than 3/4 of petroleum, extracted in the country. Within war on oil refining factories was developed of 17 millions tons of petrol, lubricant oils and other kinds of petroleum. For years of war the battle engineering of the Soviet army has spent of 17 millions tons of various petroleum, of 13 millions from them falls on a share of the Baku petroleum refiners. “Baku gave front and country so much fuel, how many it was necessary for protection of our Native land, for a victory above the enemy” – was written by the marshal G.K Jukov. Within the Second World war the Azerbaijan petroleum played a historical role of the world importance. 80 percents of battle engineering of the Soviet Army, which has put heavy impact to fascist army on east front were set in motion by the Baku petroleum. Within war in petroleum and chemical factories of Baku were made the goods 200 names, including 9 grades of air petrol, 8 grades of diesel fuel, 36 grades of machine oils, 26 grades lighting and explosive means. Much more has increased manufactures of a powder “ОП-2”, which twice raised forces of the weapon of fire.
In the beginning of 1942 began to work the Baku factory (N 610) of the equipment, which was under construction on the basis of engineering of the enterprises, moved to east. Is incorporated a basis of an automobile plant in Baku. The machine-building factories for manufacture of the military goods created different cooperative societies. In the machine-building enterprises of city was adjusted an armament production, including famous jet – artillery battle machine “Katyusha”, machine gun “ Shankin“(ППШ), air bombs (ФАБ- 250, 1000, 2000), manual bombs (Ф-1, РГД-33), 50 mm mortars, spare parts of mortar “М-13″, parts for military planes and on repair of parts of tanks. In Baku have collected the fighter – plane ” YАК- 3 “. In 1942 130 kinds of the weapon and shells were let out here. And in other cities of republic the industrial enterprise have acquired manufacture of the military goods. From middle 1941 up to the end of 1943 in Sumgait worked the factory N 570, making the weapon and equipments. In city Ganja 12 industrial enterprise have reconstructed the work on a military way. In 1942 here began to work a new mechanical factory. The military goods on 26 name were made in the enterprises of this city. Have acted in build in 1944 new shoe, and in 1945 tea packing mills in Baku. The enterprise of a local industry from a local material made equipment, economic goods, valenki (kind of felt boots) for army, clothes against the chemical weapon, furniture for hospitals, fire-prevention equipment for shelter. 70 grades the canned food made canning factories. Within war a food-processing industry of republic has sent to front 1260 cars crackers, 1100 cars of macaroni products, 1300 cars tobacco and cigarettes, 1800 cars canned food, 350 cars vegetable oil, much medical preparations. Six times raised manufactures of the medical goods in meat – dairy combine. At the end of war this combine let out 30 grades, or on 10 times more than in 1940, preparations. In republic were adjusted manufactures of the important medical preparations, surgical silk, syringe, gauze etc. Was made from the Greek nut vitamin “С” and as the caustic soda. The scientists have received oil from a bush of juniper in a oil factory in Geychay.
In ability to live of republic the large role played transport, it had also huge defenсе importance. In 1942 the construction of railway lines Julfa-Minjivan, Osmanli-Astara, Salyan-Neftchala, Papanin-Hajigabul having the large military and economic meanings was finished.
Within war the railwaymen of Azerbaijan have transported of 1300 thousand cars and 600 thousand tanks( систерны) of military and economic cargoes. Actively worked 65 cargo ships of the Caspian flotilla. In 1942, when began impossible to ensure(supply) front with fuel by rail, the seamen of Caspi, for the first time in the world practice have carried out transportation of 35 carload tanks and 3 simple tanks, filled by petroleum on tows to Krasnovodsk. Within war the Caspian seamen have sent to front of 2 million 400 thousand tons of petrol. From Iranian ports ( basically from Khorremshahr and Bandar-Shahpur), from Krasnovodsk and Makhachkala in Baku have brought 2 783 thousand tons cargoes. Part of military engineering, weapon, equipment, and foodstuffs sent to the USSR under the agreement “Lend-Liz” per 1942-1945 years have passed through Iran and Azerbaijan.
Despite of essential easing of productive forces Azerbaijan villages has given to the country hundred thousand tons of food products, cotton, tobacco, cocoon etc. Per 1941-1945 years in collective-farm herds number of animals have raised on 1 million head.
The population of Republic per 1941-1943 years in a Defense Fund has transferred 15 kg of gold, 952,5 kg of silver, bonds on 311 millions roubles. For years of war in funds of organization of tank and air groups was listed of 230 million ( including 8,1 million from Nakhichivan Avtonomic Republic and 11,2 million from Daglig (Mountain) Garabag Avtonomic Area and 10,1 million from Absheron region.) rouble. U. Hajibayov gave to this fund of 25 thousand rouble, that has made then the large sum. On front were sent 125 cars of clothes and 1,6 millions of parcels.
Azerbaijan has brought the contribution to restoration of a national economy of regions freed from the fascist aggressors in 1943-1944 years. With this purpose by autumn of 1943 were created Republican Committee of the help and its regional bodies. To the petroleum workers of Northern Caucasus, to the enterprises of Leningrad, Stalingrad, Stavropol, Ukraine the plenty of money, products of a food, building materials, cattle, industrial equipment was sent.
The attitude to war with Germany in different layers of the population was not lonely. Under ideological pressure the long years in a part of the population could educate blind belief to the leaders, “communism”, “global communist revolution”, habits mechanically to execute will of higher. Many people trusted that the USSR is the country which tries to create all conditions for happiness of the workers and considered as honour to defend it. Thousands people showed true patriotism and selflessness on fronts and rears.
Were much and those who understood a true situation of Azerbaijan, as colony of the USSR, saw that the authority is taken away from the people. The most part of the figures of a science and the cultures deeply trusted in that that freedom of the Azerbaijan people is not in a victory of a fascism, Germany will not bring to Azerbaijan independence, it is necessary to protect the people from some more large troubles and necessarily to win the fascism. In the Azerbaijan branch of an Academy of sciences of the USSR was created under the direction of the talented scientist Yusif Mammadaliyev a department of the Central Advic of a Science and Engineering on problems of chemistry, in which structure have come R.Ismailov, R. Afandiyev, A. Guliyev, J. Shahtakhtincki, S. Mehtiyev and others. In petroleum factories worked 75 scientific laboratories of new technologies. In summer of 1941 in Baku was created of the first groups of hydrogen connections. Other words, under the direction of Yusif Mammadaliyev was created original and more effective technology for manufacture of air petrol with high percent of oktan. The engineer T. Aliverdizade has created a way of cold punching of metals. The geologists Mirali Gashgay, Shаmil Azizbayov and others have opened new sources strategic materials, which can replace of rare metals. Were found a deposit of fireproof clay, fosforit and mineral dyes. They offered to use volcanic ashes in manufacture of cement and heat-shielding materials. The scientists of physics have offered thermal ways of exploring of petroleum. Scientifics, the engineers have put forward the offer on creation of a shell of guns against armour – engineering, self-regulated bombs, electrical mines against tanks, multistage mines, means against a rust, zincation of surface of manual bombs etc. They have prepared effective technologies smelting of steel pig-iron in liquid fuel, also have received other strategic materials as hydrogen, perozin, jet toluol etc. The ammiak gas, used in refrigerating devices, was replaced with propan of local manufacture. The engineers have found a way definition of a rust on underwater weldings, having militarian important. Mystafa Topchubashov and his followers have created new and more effective methods of military surgery, have returned in life of thousand fighters. In Baku the number of hospitals has increased from 5 up to 41, and place in them from 5 thousand up to 31,4 thousand. The ships “Dagistan”, “Turkmanistan” and “Kazakhstan” have turned in floating hospitals. In treatment of the wounded soldiers took part such known scientific professors as M. Mirgasimov, F. Afandiyev, M. Malikov, Z. Mammadov etc. The women gave 10 tons of blood for the wounded soldiers of. 70 percents of the wounded soldiers, which were treated in more than 150 military hospitals organized within war in republic completely have recovered and have returned again to a field of battles.
The scientists of public sciences have created hundreds proceedings about a heroic history and battle traditions of the people. In 1943 was published “The short history of the Azerbaijan literature” under editions of H. Huseynov and М. Dadashov. In the first months of war were published the collections of products of the Azerbaijan poets and writers on a patriotic theme as “Struggling pen”, “The Collection of fictions”, “Songs about a native land” (for the teenagers) and collection of publicistic works “The Fascism destroys human culture”. Were created 12 collections of works on patriotic themes for front. The best examples of the Azerbaijan poetry within war were “Sister mercy “, “Gold hawks “, “Manual of the mother “, “Feat of the hero” by Samad Vurgun, “Mother and postman” by Suleyman Rustan, “Words of the soldier`s mother” by Rasul Rza, “Tell a fairy tale, grandmother” by Аhmad Jamal, “Pleasure” by Mirvarid Dilbazi, “Dream of favourite” by Mammad Rahim etc.
The Azerbaijan dramatic art was enriched by such works as “Farhad and Shirin” by Samad Vurgun, “Nizami” by Mehdi Huseyn. In too time hundreds product in hastes written, not free from a conjuncture have appeared. The poets and writers frequently visited military parts, acted before the soldiers.
The composers of Azerbaijan have created within war about 400 new march, symphones, songs, operas etc. Wide popularity have received songs “Sister mercy “, “Hymn of a victory ” by Uzeyr Hajibayov, ” Wait for me ” by Suleyman Alaskarov. Аshug M. Bayramov in “Dastan about Kamal” had shown heroism of the Azerbaijan soldiers in battles against the fascists. With interest were accepted opera “Native land” of the young composers Gara Garayev and Jovdat Hajiyev. In 1941 on the initiative of U. Hajibayov the «Ensemble of national tools” was created at Committee of Radio. 82 front concert brigades have acted before the soldiers on fronts. 35 thousand concerts were organized on military parts. The Azerbaijan cinematography has created cinema of a tape on themes of patriotism and military chronicle. “Son of a native land”, “Bakhtiyar”, “Submarine Т-9 ” etc. the films were more popular.
In education of military patriotism the active role was played also foremen of fine art. 50 political posters were published by mass circulation. Was issued 400 numbers of the art collection “Агитокон” (Window of propaganda). Were prepared and published the political posters under a heading “The struggling pencil”. Political caricatures of A. Azimzade and I. Akhundov were especially valuable. S. Salamzade, T. Tagiyev, S.Sharifzade, M. Rakhmanzade etc. have created interesting pictures on themes of war, soldier’s life, about life of rear. The works of the Azerbaijan artists and sculptors were demonstrated on tens exhibitions, including in 1943 on Tretyakov`s Gallery.
In mobilization of the people against a fascism active participation accepted also clergy of Azerbaijan. In April 14, 1944 after the decision of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR was created «Religious Management Moslems of Zagafgaziya (Southern Caucasus)». On congress of moslems of Southern Caucasus was chosen its chairman – sheykh-yl-islam, assistant of chairman – myfti and members of management. The first chairman of management sheykh-yl-islam Aga Alizada in mosque of “Taza Pir“ called moslems to obey the laws of government and with this way “to preserve religion”.
In mobilization of potential opportunities the important role has played high organizing ability, insistence, adherence to principle and even cruelty of first secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan Mir Jafar Bagirov.
As a result of wise, far-seeing policy of azerbaijanian, Aziz Aliyev (earlier was the secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan and chairman of the Azerbaijan Committee of the help wounded soldiers and commanders), who in 1942 was to put forward on a post of first secretary of Regional Committee of Dagistan of CP of Russia more than 30 peoples of this area was successfully mobilized against an enemy and is rescued from horrors of deportation from their native grounds, as it was with their neighbours – Chechens, Ingyshs, Kalmyks, Tatars of Crimea etc.
Tens talented commanders as Hazi Aslanov, Akim Abasov, Mehti Mahmudov, Yagub Guliyev, Habibulla Huseynov, Aslan Vazirov etc. have shown brilliant organizing abilities and feats for rescue of the peoples from a fascism.