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The first dwelling houses of human beings. The development periods of primitive communal system

The South Caucasus, as well as all historical territories of Azerbaijan are included to an ancient zone of human settlements. Construction of the present territories of Azerbaijan at the result of liquidation of huge marine territories goes to the period of 3 million years before.

Sometimes, before the representatives of Soviet historical science guessed that the beginning of the history of mankind in Azerbaijan went back to 5-6 thousand years before, but at the result of investigations of prominent historians and archaeologists of Azerbaijan there was proved that our motherland possessed Quruchay archaeological culture that had 2,6-3 million ages and which could be compared with famous Olduvay culture.

During the last 50 years, there were revealed rich materials and samples of material culture in order to investigations of the history, formation and development of ancient people at the result of complex researches in the territory of Azerbaijan. On the base of these researches there were examined the history of further past of Azerbaijan, as well as the development of mankind and specialties of material culture of the ancient settlers.

At present time, there is no doubt that Azerbaijan stays in the line of ancient regions, where were the signs of primary human beings. The discovered historical and archaeological investigations much more enriched the cultural heritage. So, there was proved that the history of the first human inhabitants in Azerbaijan began even 2 million years before and archaeological cultures, replaced one another in the Eneolithic and the Bronze Ages, such as Shomutepe, Kultepe, Leylatepe, Kur-Aras, Khojaly-Gedebey, Talish-Mughan and others, illustrates the subsequence of social and agricultural forms of human inhabitants in the territory of Azerbaijan since the ancient ages.

The discovery of Quruchay culture in Karabakh by the prominent representative of archaeological science – Mammadali Huseynov and his colleagues also the monument of Azikh cave, as well as monuments of ancient Palaeolithic that were found in Kazakh, Nakhichevan, Lerik and other regions of the country proved that Azerbaijan referred to the territories of initial occupation. Although Quruchay culture concerned to 1.5 mln. years ago, M.Huseynov who discovered this culture referred its formation to 1.7 – 2,1 mln. years ago.

The discovered cultural materials in the caves of Azikh and Taglar (Karabagh), Damjili and Dashsalahli (on the Aveydagh mountain, the region of Kazakh, Zara, Kalbajar), Qazma (Nakhichevan) and Buzeir (Lerik) give us rich and various evidences about the ancient people that settled in the territories of Azerbaijan during the periods of the Palaeolithic Age.

Azikh cave played an important and special role among the monuments of Palaeolithic period in Azerbaijan. At the result of investigations there were revealed 6 huge halls   and plenty of archaeological materials, laid in 10 cultural stratums, concerned to the Lower Palaeolithic – the stages of shel, ashel as well as the Middle Palaeolithic period. Stone tools of labour that were discovered here gave us information about the settlers and their livestock on the shore of Quruchay river.

The most essential scientific discovery of Azikh cave should be considered a piece of jaw with two teeth, which was found in 1968, in the 5th stratum. The scientific investigations that were carried out with the modernist methods and technical equipment of the last quarter of XX century proved that this jaw belonged to 18-22 years old woman, who lived 350-400 thousand years ago, it means at the Middle Ashel Age of Lower Palaeolithic Period. This discovery was the most ancient item that found in the territory of USSR and where the jaw discovered according to the same place it was called as “Azikhantrop” (“human from Azikh”). The remaining of Azikhantrop especially, allowed us know that the territory of Azerbaijan is included to the line of the ancient settled territories of the world.

Labour tools that discovered in Azikh cave referred to the Lower and the Middle Palaeolithic period (the Age of “mustye”) and they were much more colourful and various that were small sized and well-made and better than the stone tools of initial phase-gigantolithic. These findings gave us chance to learn about livestock of Azikhantrop, especially their abilities and hunting tools and imagination about fauna Palaeozoic of the North Caucasus. At the result of investigations in the cave there was cleared that the inhabitants of Azikh began to use the flame approximately 700 thousand years ago. The hearths, fired by Azikhantrop protected people from wild animals, as well as by the vehicle of them meat was cooked and eaten easily by the ancient people.

That reason also aided ancient inhabitants to develop their physics and brain. Especially valuable discoveries are the scull bones of bear finding in the plant of Azikh cave, showed that there were existed totemic ideas and thoughts in Azikhantrop.

In conclusion, we can say that in the period of existence of initial communities about one million years the labour tools were improved and hunting methods of primary settlers were developed. Later, the humans began to develop, their brain increased and they began to be nimbler, smarter and at last appeared the speech. Primary settlers began to understand and learnt the struggle against of natural disasters, to obtain and preserve flame as well as began to create their first houses, learnt to pray and worship under the frame of totemism: specialists thought that initial religious ideas of primary people were shaped namely in the phase of the Lower Palaeolithic period, when the people prayed to animals and natural events.

The results of researches showed that approximately 100 thousand years ago the stage of the upper ashel also the lower Palaeolithic Age gave their place to the middle Palaeolithic Age.

The monuments of material culture of the Middle Palaeolithic Age that continued about 60-65 thousand years (from 100 thousand years BC to 35-40 thousand years BC) were first of all found in the area of Mustye, in France. Therefore, this period was also called as “the phase of culture of Mustye”.

There happened great innovations in material culture as well as spiritual life of primary “able human” – “homo habilis” in the phase of Mustye. This first of all showed itself in the shape of more suitable stone tools and equipment, better than the ones of the Palaeolithic period. Another success of the Middle Palaeolithic period was the formation of spear – arm that played an essential role in the hunting process.

The physical development of the human being in the period of Mustye reached to the highest level and resulted with the creation of “Neanderthal human”, looked like to the modern people in appearance (This human being was called “Neanderthal” because, the first remaining of such person were discovered on the shore of the river of Neandr in Germany. Neanderthal people lived in opened houses that were made from different hand-made materials along the caves.

Spiritual livestock of people also changed in the phase of the Middle Palaeolithic period. So, progress continued in the life of “able human” and there were shaped grave celebrities and the belief to the other world.

The traces of the Middle Palaeolithic period and remaining of material culture of the phase of Mustye can be found in the cave of Azikh, Taglar, Damjili, Baglar, Zar as well as in the mustye stratums of Buzeir and Qazma, in the shore of Urmia, in the camps of Qadirdere, Chakhmagh, Maralli (in Kazakh region) and other settlements.

One of achievements of the Middle Palaeolithic Age was the preparation of labour and hunting tools by the technics of “levallua”. The guns, prepared from silicon and obsidian were much longer and sharper which increased their importance. The material culture of Mustye period in Azikh cave is rich with triangle slivers, saw tooth and sharp-pointed tools, exactly, in this period were found the tools with nozzle and notched. In the centre of Taglar cave 9/10 tools that found there were sharp-pointed and scraping knife that were made much more carefully and comprehensively. We can say that they were especially made for the hunting. The inhabitants of this period prepared special guns for hunting, which opened way to the individual hunting along with collective hunting. People of the Middle Palaeolithic period hunted more than 25 types of animals, such as dear, cave bears, wild horses, goats, donkeys and wild boars. The hunting of primary human became much more developer and better ensured their family members with food.

According to the thoughts of many specialists, the first camp of the period of Mustye at the territories of former USSR, as well as the Middle East that characterized this phase is the camp of Taglar. Here systematically investigations began since 1963, and there was found 5 stratums from 6, which preserved 7 thousand stone tools and 20 thousand bones of various animals in itself, which belonged to the Middle Palaeolithic period. The Mustye complex of Taglar gave us chance to learn about the local development of Mustye phase, as well as to follow the evolution of last Ice Age.

The people of the Middle Palaeolithic period had not already been nomadic hunters and collectors. They made caves and settled there. For example, according to specialists thought Taglar cave was the settlement of primary people approximately for 50-55 thousand years and here each inhabitant had to bring to the cave more than 500 animals during a year. This meant not only meat, but also dress and other necessary materials by means of separating knife. There was consideration that the division of work between sexes began approximately in this period; men were engaged in hunting, women were engaged in collecting and housekeeping. We should notice that paleoanthropic was able to differ the colours in this period too. For example, there were found stone decorations in the colours of black, red, yellow, brown, grey, green and white in Taglar cave.

Labour in common, blood relativeness and long-termed combined settling shaped the feelings of joint care among the people, also taking care of sick persons at the period of Mustye. Discovered settlements of the Middle Palaeolithic period were situated far from one another at the territory of Azerbaijan and it showed that the settling of people at those periods had enlarged.

The creation of clan communities in this phase could be considered the sign of formation of the phase of initial communities in the stage of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Finally, at the result of evolution of Neanderthal human at the end of Mustye phase, the process of physical formation of human was over and there was appeared the human of contemporary type – “Homo sapiens” (“Rational human”).

The livestock of people in clan communities became more safe and stable. There were shaped early tribes that consisted of several clans on the ground of blood relativeness in the Upper Palaeolithic period. Labour in common, combined using of guns and tools, new marriage relationship that differed from the oldest vague and the determination of posterity from the sole line were the main signs of the clan community.

In the initial phase of clan communities’ woman played superior and leading role both in household and communal life of clan. Thus, men were engaged in hunting and fishery, but women were responsible in preserving of flame and property, making of dress, take care of children, olds and sick persons, collecting of eatable items. At the result of these, women played an important role in livestock and the clan was formed by the woman line. This period was called “matriarkhat” in the history and continued in Upper Palaeolithic period (40 thousand years- 14th millennium BC), the Mesolithic (13th-8th millennium BC) and the Neolithic (7th-6th millenniums BC). The monuments and material items, belonged to the upper Palaeolithic period can be found in the caves of Damjili, Taglar, as well as in opened settlements of Yataq Yeri (in Kazakh region).

In the upper stratum of Taglar cave were found tools of Upper Palaeolithic period along with the guns that belonged to the phase of Mustye. This fact showed that guns and tools of the Upper Palaeolithic period were developed at the result of evolution in the period of Mustye.

The tools, prepared from silicon and obsidian were characteristic for Upper Palaeolithic period.
There were discovered some remaining, such as hearths, some natural colours – red okhra, which probably used in art, drawings and spiritual ceremonies as well. At that period some big animals vanished and main objects of hunting were Caucasian deer, mountainous goat and ox. The differing specialties of the Upper Palaeolithic period was that the preparation of tools decreased. This tradition that continued in the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods as well, were related with changes, happened in household life of people at that time.

For the Mesolithic period, there were characteristic the preparation of little tools, looked like triangle and other algebraically figures. In the Damjili caves, in the graves of Firuz settlement and in more than 20 rock monuments of Gobustan, in the mountains of Zagros as well as in Shusha and Karabakh regions were discovered the guns from silicon that belonged to the Mesolithic period.

The most essential and significant achievement of the Mesolithic period is the shape of axe and bow, which were supported by the discoveries in Damjili and Gobustan: the most ancient drawings in Gobustan are the descriptions of people with axes and bows on the rock. The discovery of axe and bow, in contemporary life the distanced gun gave opportunity to hunters – after that they could obtain and hunt animals and birds even at far distances, both small groups of hunters and sole hunters were able to go to hunting. Big groups of hunters that used natural types and stone tools also sustained and these evidences were proved by the rock drawings of Gobustan. One of achievements of household in the Mesolithic period was considered the shape of fishery. There were found the pictures of fish and fish networks on the

Gobustan rocks, as well as there were discovered several bone guns and tools for sewing fish networks and so on. The drawings of boats on the rocks of Gobustan also witnessed to the large extension of fishery at that time.

Ancient rock drawings of Gobustan that discovered at the present time, which numbers reaches to 6000 are not only the samples of art of primary life, also give us a chance to determine example about the life of people in the Mesolithic and the Neolithic periods.

Among the pictures of Mesolithic period, the drawings of hunter with axe and bow incline the attention most of all. Major themes of these drawings were animals, living near the settlements of Gobustan, scenes of hunting and fishery and so on. The description of human beings, scenes of hunting with bow and dog also oxen are characteristic for the Mesolithic and may be for the Neolithic periods. Therefore, the Mesolithic period became an important transitive phase which ended with the “Neolithic revolution”.

Since the end of 8th millennium BC, in the territory of Azerbaijan the Mesolithic period gave its place to the Neolithic period – the “new stone” stage. The push for this economic revolution in the territory of Azerbaijan was made in the Mesolithic period – so, people for thousand years gathered their practical knowledge about animals and plants, gave attention to the growing of plants, learned to domesticate animals. In the Neolithic period people learned to create much more suitable and difficult tools of labour. Major monuments, belonged to this period were found near Ganja, on the shore of Urmiya Lake not far from Tabriz, in Gobustan, in Kultapa (Nakhichevan), in Karabagh (Chalagantepe, Qargalartepesi) and in Kazakh region.

The most prominent and significant achievement and the cause of revolution in the Neolithic period is considered the shape of producing household, which main spheres are cattle breeding and farming. The separation of clan and tribes that were engaged in farming and cattle- breeding shaped the cross from consumption industry to producing industry. This event, which played significiant role in the change of society and in the development of producing powers was called the “Neolithic revolution”. This first industrial revolution in the history of the world changed the economy of mankind, provided man to control his extra food. Of course, new sphere of household did not immediately liquidate former ones-collecting, hunting and fishery sustained their importance at the beginning of the Neolithic period.

There began the settlement and occupation of plain areas that were useful for producing industry. There were shaped conditions in order to transition to the “agricultural” livestock. The monuments of Haji Firuz, Yanigtepe and Sulduz in the Southern Azerbaijan are the remanings about the settlements of village type and farming-cattle- breeding household, referred to the end of the Neolithic period (6th millennium BC). New industry increased the productiveness as well as pushed to the creation and development of intertribal exchange.

The one of achievements of the Neolithic period was pottery and production of ceramic plates. The plate was handmade and after giving essential form it was burned in the flame. At the end of the Neolithic period, such plates were coloured. Such pottery productions were discovered in Hasanli, Dalmatepe in Southern Azerbaijan, in the first Kultepe of Nakhichevan .

The transition into the producing industry, settling of human groups and units of broaden regions gave opportunities to increasing the number of population. There were shaped such types of domestic household as sewing, weaving, bricklaying and so on. Such innovations in livestock of people as well as in industry were going to the destruction of communal-clan stage.

Approximately, since the second half of 6th millennium BC, the territory of Azerbaijan entered to the new stage of its development – Eneolithic period (the copper stone stage). In the period of Eneolithic that lasted till the half of 4th millennium BC the producing industry more developed and the people firstly got acquainted with metal- copper. As copper is not tough metal so, it was used only in producing of decorative items, but stone tools had been dominated yet. That is why this period was called the Eneolithic.

The population increased frequently in the Eneolithic period. The main engagement became to hoe farming. There were discovered plenty of settlements, belonged to the Eneolithic period in Ganja – Kazakh, Mil – Karabakh, Mughan and Nakhichevan territories, as well as near the river of Urmia Lake and Tabriz of the Southern Azerbaijan. During this period people lived in the settlements next to the shores of rivers. Houses were circle and were made from bricks. They were not so big and were counted for monogamous families, which had areas in the common fields. The people were engaged in hunting and fishery along with cattle breeding and farming. Sewing, weaving and pottery were much more popular spheres of craft. Farming fields were planted by hoe and harvests were kept in special cases. The remanings of grape,discovered in Shomutepe and Alikomemtepe witnessed that there was appeared vine at the Eneolithic period in Azerbaijan.

Cattle-breeding were developed. Small and big cattles as well as horned cattle were raised since the 5th millennium BC. There was also found the bones of domesticated horse in Alikomektepe in Jalilabad region. The Eneolithic was the period of prosperity of “matriarchy” – woman played an improtant role in the community and this evidence was proved by the discovered women’s figures in different settlements. Old and wise men began to play significant role in the phase of Eneolithic.

Funeral ceremonies also possessed special place at that time – burials were implemented in determined territories such as in the middle of settlements, also under the ground or next to the wall. The implementation of this ceremony in settlements and painting the died person into red colour were related to the belief of people to the life after death. There were discovered several paitings concerned to funeral ceremonies in Gobustan rocks. First jug graves were also found in the settlements of the Eneolothic period. There were discovered bones of dogs – which showed that the domestication of dogs finally ended, parts of pottery items in the graves of died people.

Beginning from the half of 4th BC the Eneolithic period was substituted by the Bronze period. During the Bronze period that lasted till the end of 2nd millennium BC, stone tools were entirely replaced by bronze. There were found a lot of copper mines in different regions of Azerbaijan (Gedebey, Karabakh, Dashkesen, Nakhichevan). But, copper was not so solid for making strong tools. So, people at that time added to copper some other things, such as arsenic, antimony, lead and tin. At the result of this mixture they acquired new solid material – bronze. At the Bronze period there happened further development of producing powers and there occurred changes in the social life also in leading spheres of economy. During this period clan communities destroyed and there occurred the transition to the early class communities. The Bronze age is divided into 3 periods: first – Early Bronze Age (the mid of 4th – 3rd millennium s BC), second – the middle Bronze Age (the end of 3rd – 1st half of 2nd millennium s BC), third – the Late Bronze Age (14th – 12th centuries BC).

The changes, occurred in the life stock and social life during the Bronze Age were well pursued in the monuments of Kur-Aras archaeological cultures, which were extended in all territories of Azerbaijan – in Karabakh, Kazakh, Shamkir, Khachmaz, Gobustan,

Nakhichevan (Kultepe I, Kultepe II) and in the Southern Azerbaijan (Goytepe, Yanigtepe). There were found plenty of archaeological items, such as remaining of various settlements stone figures, bones of domesticated animals (ox, ass, dog), labour tools, guns, different makings from bones, stones, metals and so on.

There was pursued high level of farming technique in the settlements that belonged to Kur-Aras culture. Hoes that were made from bones have already collapsed at that period. And the scientific investigations proved that, farming have been rapidly developing in the first half of 3rd millennium BC – there happened transition from hoe farming into plough farming. There was formed artificial farming, use of animals in this process extended the number of agricultural areas.

The results of archaeological researches gave us chance to think that, there were increased the measures of construction of settlements at the period of Stone Age – there were extended oval settlements with flames in the centre or next to the wall. Settlements at the period of Bronze Age were constructed near the water sources, natural valleys were suitable for farming and for social life. The study of such settlements showed that, they were often strengthened by defence walls. Such defence settlements of Early Bronze Age could be meet both in the North and South Azerbaijan, not only in plane areas of country (for instance, settlements of Dair, Gobustan, Goytepe, Yanigtepe), but also in mountainous areas and regions (settlements of Delidagh and Kalbajar). Houses of the period of Kur-Aras culture were constructed from bricks as in the Neolithic and the Eneolithic periods, but cobble-stones were much more famous at that time (that is, in the period of Bronze Age). The sample of such settlements met in Kultepe II in Nakhichevan region. There were found big worshiping places with huge walls and they were discovered in Kultepe (Nakhichevan), in Serkertepe (Khachmaz) and in Babadervish (Kazakh).

There were developed various kinds of craft, such as metal- working, pottery, weaving and sewing. Especially, in this period, people that were engaged in one type of craft settled in special zones. There were increased the quality of pottery items in the Bronze Age too. The discovered compact stoves in different areas proved that, trade and handicraft were in prosperity of this period. There were found pottery stoves in Babadervish. There were preserved tools from stones and bones along with bronze.

In plane areas there were extended artificial farming, but in mountainous areas there were enlarged rainfed farming. The preferences were given to grain cereals. In order to kept grain cereals the people used special jars and brick settlements. There were kept grain in 22 open holes that was found in Babadervish. In Yanigtepe was discovered oval room with brick walls, which served for keeping grain cereals.

Growing grapevines were enlarged and began to possess an important place in agriculture during the Bronze Age. Cattle-breeding also developed intensively. The number and types of domesticated cattle were increased too. There happened first division of labour in the Bronze Age. The development of production gave chance to keep extra products, which assisted to the extension of exchange. There was formed stratification among cattle-breeders. It is proved by funeral of tribe leader in Uchtepe burial mound, in Mil region. This burial mound is belonged to the 3rd millennium BC.

Farming began to demand much more power and endurance. Namely, man utilized plough, he was engaged in cattle, worked as potter and farrier. The leading position in economy passed to the man. So there began the phase of patriarchy (father-leading period). Changes, occurring in economic life of people influenced to their social life too.

So that, there was shaped social inequality, during this phase (in Bronze Age), which was proved by funeral and grave remaining, found at the result of archaeological excavations. So, social inequality was shaped in the middle of 3rd millennium BC.

Close form of existence of tribal society had been shaken at that period. As the example to these thoughts we can bring the burial mounds of Uchtepe in Mil region with the height of 15 meters with the diameter of 130 meters. The size of under grave hole here was 36 square meters. All these discoveries proved that, this burial mound belonged to the tribe leader. But there is existed one much bigger burial mound in Uchtepe with the height of 21 meters. Such burial mound could be constructed in the honour of leader that united tribes. These burial mounds proved that, in the mid of 3rd millennium BC there were established tribal units in the territories of the North Azerbaijan.

Rock descriptions and images in the region of Kalbajar that belonged to early Bronze Age, also the remaining of sewing, weaving and pottery items proved that, there occurred changes in art.

So, development of farming, cattle-breeding and trade in the period of early Bronze Age changed social relations too. Differing from the Eneolithic period, died people were buried far from settlements and their graves were covered by burial mounds in early Bronze Age. There were formed different funeral ceremonies and collective burial; patriarchy had strengthened in society.

There began the period of the middle Bronze Age in the 1st half of 2nd millennium BC in the territory of ancient Azerbaijan. Settlements were much huger and relationship among tribes was much more sustainable at that period. So, during this phase we can speak about separate ethnocultural commonalities. There increased social and property inequality. The study of settlements of this period – they are Kultepe I and Kultepe II in Nakhichevan, Uzerliktepe, Goytepe and Chinartepe in Aghdam region, castles of Oglankala and Chalagantepe in Nakhichevan, burial mounds of Borsunlu, Yanigtepe and some others in South Azerbaijan – confirms thoughts above mentioned.

The settlement that is famous as Kultepe II at the present time is the place that situated between Nakhichevan chay and Ceyranchay rivers and this area was the city-castle of Nakhichevan , which was established 3500 years ago. This ancient city with the size of 10 ha, was one of the early city-states in the territory of Azerbaijan. The establishment of such settlements was associated with the development of economy and trade as well. There were revealed strong defence fences in the settlements of Uzerliktepe, Oglankala and Garakopektepe. They were constructed from huge stone blocks.

The oval houses and settlements were replaced with houses of multi rooms and correct designs. Most of settlements, referring to the middle Bronze Age are huge in size. So that, the territory of Chinartepe in Karabakh was 7 ha, Yangitepe was 9 ha, Kultepe II in Nakhichevan and settlement of Jafarkhanli, not far from Jalilabad were 10 ha and around of such settlements there were constructed big defence walls. Square defence walls of Uzerliktepe (Aghdam), which had the wide of 2 meters was built from bricks.

There were shaped gardening, kinder-gardening, growing grapevines and winemaking in the phase of the middle Bronze Age.

There were extended artificial growing and farming systems and all of these improved the labour tools. Small horned cattle much more enlarged in cattle-breeding and horses were used both in farming and riding. There was also widely utilization of wool cloth in sewing and weaving. Trade became the separate field of engagement and there occurred the second social division of labour in the middle Bronze Age (in the stage of primary communities). There were found whole trade and craft zones and pottery stones at the result of architectural excavations in Kultepe II.

There were found high-qualified makings with various ornaments in pottery at that time. There were also appeared gold and silver makings. People made guns, tools and etc. from metal. There were discovered plenty of bronze makings, made by qualified masters at the results of investigations. Archaeologists also found a lot of labour tools, connected with sewing and weaving. Hunting and fishery preserved its assistance power in economy.

The power of tribe leaders and superior powers of society of tribe leaders and superior powers of society had strengthened. This was proved by burial mounds of leaders. Shamanizm and magic were extended in religion – this was proved in rock descriptions of Gobustan, Gemigaya and Istisu. Primary art much more developed at that time. Art makings of that period proved itself by described animals, people, plants and geometrical ornaments.

Strengthened settlements – cyclopean areas in mountainous regions were also shaped in the middle Bronze Age. Cyclopean areas of Oglangala, Galaciq, Chalkhagala, Govurgala in Nakhichevan were the settlements, constructed from huge parts of rocks. Such “huge walls” were built in order to protect the property and cattle of tribal units.

There were discovered approximately 140 various bronze makings in rich grave that was next to the first one, there were found gold, silver and bronze jewellery. Gold and bronze jewellery were found in burial mounds near contemporary city of Shaki. All of these reveals gave us basic to say that, there began the division of specialties in metal-working at the beginning of 2nd millennium BC – various specialties, such as gun making and jewellery making began to develop in this period.

So, there occurred new social division of labour in the period of the middle Bronze Age-trade separated from farming.
Pottery also separated and become the separate field of trade. Pottery work place with four stoves, which was found in Kultepe II and surrounded the area of 120 square meters, it can be the evidence to thoughts of above mentioned. On the dish, found in Kultepe II, there were described moving animal heads that turned to the direction of dangerous. But on the dish, discovered in Khaftavantepe there were described the scenes of hunting. So, most of dishes of the phase of the middle Bronze Age can be considered essential samples of art trade, made by artists.

The description of people on dishes also gave us evidences about the dress of that period. The item from four teeth that was found in Uzerliktepe is the part of sewing machine of the Bronze Age.

Metallurgy and metalworking rapidly extended and developed in the period of the late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. Stoves and copper items, were found in Mingachavir, guns, dishes and jewellery from Shamkir and Gedebey were the awesome samples of masters at that time. At the end of 2nd millennium BC there began the produce of metal, basing on the technique of cold blow. Iron guns and swards were made in the same forms as bronze weapons. Continuity between bronze and iron metallurgies, different parts from the Bronze Age in the early Iron Age makings were the main factor of transition into Iron Age. Western Azerbaijan, Talish-Mughan zone and regions of Urmiya River were the main areas of iron makings.

There was pursued great progress in pottery. There were made dishes in black and white colour in different regions of Azerbaijan, with geometric ornaments and description of people, animals and birds on them.

Winning round of stone was also developed at that period. Plates and dishes, discovered in Khojali, Mingachavir, Goranboy, Yukhari Alabashli were the real products of art.

During the division of trade the producing items turned into goods. There was shaped trade centres in the period of the middle Bronze Age. Development of trade assisted to the creation of equivalent of goods – at that time there was used small horned cattle in spite of money during exchange. There exist direct evidences that exactly during the middle Bronze Age there were shaped trade relations with the countries of Front Asia. So, there are close similarity between the items and makings, found in Alikomektepe and reveals, found in the territories of Eastern shores of Mediterranian Sea (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon).

Prosperity of economy, collection of extra products, jewellery and guns in the hands of tribal leaders and superior powers established private property, where were also included cattle, fields and labour tools.

The society of that period consisted of rich men, craftsmen, and commune. The last ones were the major producing power of community. Difficult works, such as building water pipes, making defence fences and securing the territory of tribe were on their shoulders.

The second half of 2nd-millennium and the beginning of 1st millennium BC – during the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age – were the periods of destruction of the stage of primary communities and the transition of early class formations. This period gave plenty of monuments to the territories of Azerbaijan. Further development of economy and trade at that period caused to the property inequality not only between tribal leaders and between superior powers of tribes also, between separate families. The discoveries of rich graves in the Khanlar, Terter and Aghdam areas proved the thoughts about the strength of different tribal powers. Even there were found servants’ bones in several graves, which were belonged to tribe leaders with the size of 200-250 square meters. Most of murdered and buried people of that time were military officers and slaves of tribe leaders. Ancient people thought that, they would serve to their chief in another world too. Such funeral ceremonies noted in burial mounds of Gedebey, Ganja, as well as in Garabulag, Dovshanli and Borsunlu.

The change of attitude to women and turning them into slaves of chiefs were related to the circumstances and leading positions of men in tribes too. May be, it’s not casually that, there were not discovered any women images and statues during archaeological excavations of that period. Despite of it, there were found plenty of descriptions and statues, belonged to men during investigations.

By increasing private properties at that time, there began the forms of desire to acquire trophy by easy means. That’s why wars became the permanent profession of representatives of “military democracy” at that period.

Improvement of guns and weapons, vehicles for defence and security also assisted to such wars. So, the settlements of that period were protected by durable walls and fences, which proved thought of above-mentioned.

There are many such cyclopean-zone and settlements, which were constructed from big parts of rocks in Dashkesan and Gedebey regions (Dashlitepe, Nagaradagh, Chobandashi, Molla Abdulla bulagi, Pir Galachasi and etc.) as well as in Nakhichevan, Khanlar and Aghdam (Garatepe). Making of different types of attack and defence weapons, such as swards, axes, bows and etc. also proved the evidence that, wars were extended in the half of 2nd millennium BC. As graves of leaders and rich men also, weapons and guns became much more developed in the late Bronze Age. These facts witnessed about directive changes in the social life and construction of neighbourhood communities – the destruction of the stage of primary communities became inevitable.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"