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Collapse of the State of Hulakids. Azerbaijan under the reign of Chobanids

The circumstances of Hulakids became strained day-by-day and feudal strife had increased. The historian Hamdullah Qazvini wrote that, there was such chaos in the country, the condition was so aggravated that, everybody tried to bring his own pretender to the throne. Arpa-khan’s attempt for strengthening the central power were unsuccessful. The tribe of oyrat, led by emir Ali-PadiShah conducted the fought against Arpa- khan. Arpa-khan, who was deprived from the throne was replaced by Musa-khan (1336), but a year did not pass, when Muhammed khan (1336- 1338) came to the throne by the aid of other feudal group. Separate thoughts among big feudals intensified – they aimed to the collapse of the state and became independent. There was shaped real multiple authority in the country.

The hostilities among Turkish-Mongolian feudal groups of calairids, chobanids and Khorasan emirs proved the weakness of political, economic and cultural relationship among various regions of the country.

On the other side, even in the circumstances of the supremacy of natural industry, goods production increased, exploited peoples fought for their independence. Foreign invasions, especially the attacks of Gold Orda were one of the factors in the future destiny of the country.

Arabic traveller, Ibn Battuta, who visited the countries of East, as well as Azerbaijan wrote that, at the result of certain conditions the state of Hulakids was divided into 10 parts and Azerbaijan was ruled by Chobanids.

Although Hulakids dismissed emir Choban in 1323, his sons strengthened in Garahisar, Rum and other territories. In 1338, the grandson of Choban, Sheykh Hasan Choban (he was called “Hasan Junior”) attracted the forces that disagreed from calairids to his side and moved to Tabriz. At that period Tabriz was under the control of Muhammed -khan and Sheykh Hasan Calairi (he was famous as “Hasan Junior” in the sources). Sheykh Hasan Chobani, who won in this fought, proclaimed Satebey-khatun (1339-1340) the ruler of the state and began to rule the country from her home. According to the treaty, concluded between Sheikh Hasan Chobani and Sheihk Hasan Calairi in 1338, the last moved to Qazvin and from there to Baghdad. In Baghdad he proclaimed Jahan Teymur khan the padiShah. Seykh Hasan Chobani obtained Rey, Veramin, Tugan, Azerbaijan, Arabic Irag, Hamadan, Kum, Kashan, Georgia, as well as part of Armenia together with Satebey khatun. Chobanids acted from 1338 till 1357 in the history of Azerbaijan. Calairids and Chobanids always fought against each other.

But this fought was unresulted. Although Sheikh Hasan Chobani dethroned Satebey khatun and brought Suleiman khan to the throne in 1340, the situation did not change. The aggravated circumstances day- by-day ended with the death of Sheikh Hasan Chobani in 1343.

Suleiman khan, who appointed his own brother Melik Ashraf the chief emir, soon regretted about it.

In 1344, Melik Ashraf proclaimed Hulakid prince, Anushirevan (1344-1355) the padiShah, but he ruled the state instead of Anushirevan, who was well-known with the nice-name of “Tair”. In 1347, Melik Ashraf made invasion to Bahgdad but had to retreat. Angry Melik Ashraf attacked to Đsfahan and captured the city for some time in 1352; under the leadership of Deli Beyazid there began uprising in Karabakh, which was against Melik Ashraf’s oppression. The uprising was neutralized with difficulty. In 1356, the khan of Gold Orda, Jani khan utilized from this situation, attacked to Azerbaijan, passed through Shirvan and Arran, captured Tabriz. In 1357, Melik Ashraf was captured and assassinated by the request of nation and clergy.

Although Chobanids did not establish independent state, they possessed special place in the history of Azerbaijan in the examined period. This state was ruled by Hulakid princes – Satibey khatun, Suleiman khan, Anushirevan Tair, Hasan khan. The official ceremonies, organized by Chobanids were related with the name of Hulakids.

Chobanid emir Akludjuq divided Azerbaijan between Chobanid emirs. Sheikh Uveys Calairi encountered with Akludjuq near the mountain of Sina. At the result of the battle, taken place in 1358, Uveys won. Chobanids, which robbed Tabriz, escaped to Nakhichevan. Sheikh Uveys conquered Tabriz and became the founder of the state of Calairids in Azerbaijan. So, he put end to the existence of the state of Hulakids.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"