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Cultural life of the Soviet Azerbaijan

There was intensified the development of enlightenment and science, literature and art in Azerbaijan in these years. There was applied compulsory 7 years education in 1949, and 8 years education in 1959.

There was opened Baku Theatre University (contemporary University of Culture and Art) in 1945, pedagogical Institute of Foreign languages  (modern University of Foreign languages) in 1948, Polytechnical University (contemporary Technical University) in 1950, and other high schools. There were constructed and opened hundreds of libraries, clubs, cinemas and museums too. Azerbaijan music was enriched by the works of worldwide composers such as Kara Karayev, Fikrat Amirov and Arif Melikov. At the result of the activity of famous director – Adil Iskenderov, as well as prominent actors as Alesker Aleskerov, Marziya Davudova, Leyla Badirbeyli, Mohsun Sanani, Nasiba Zeynalova and others, so Azerbaijan stage art gained great development. Azerbaijan movies-“Arshin mal alan” (1945), “O olmasin, bu olsun” (1956), “In far shores” (1958), “Stepmother” (1959) came to the world stage. The publication of newspapers, journals and books enlarged. On February 14, 1956, there was opened Azerbaijan television.

There were published three volumed “The history of Azerbaijan” (1958-1963), three-volumed “History of Azerbaijan literature” and other fundamental works on the history and culture of Azerbaijan nation. The greatest impact to the historical science was the reveal and research of rock drawings of Gobustan, as well as remaining of ancient man in the Azikh cave.

There happened essential development in Azerbaijan culture and literature. There were reflected existing realities of that time in the works of the representatives of literatural generation of 60s – Anar, Elchin, Isa Husseinov and others.

In this period, at the result of the activity of Heydar Aliyev in Azerbaijan, national self-determination essentially intensified. There were shaped suitable conditions for free thought in creative intellengency. In 1969, there was published the almanac of Gobustan (editor Anar) by the vehicle of Heydar Aliyev. At that time, when the word of Ganja was forbidden, there was created new urban region of “New Ganja”. Regions of Baku city began to be called under the name of prominent poets-Nizami and Nasimi. Re-name of Babek region in Nakhichevan and Askeran region in Mountaneous Karabakh proved that these areas concerned to Azerbaijan lands by origin.

The attention to the development of science, enlightenment, literature, art and architecture intensified too. The network of high, secondary, private and general schools, theatres, clubs, museums and libraries essentially enlarged. In 1971, by the initiative of Heydar Aliyev there was created secondary specialized school-orphanage, named after C.Nakhichevan sky for the preparation of national military staff. The attention to the preparation of highly-qualified staff strengthened. More than 3500 Azerbaijan young boys and girls were directed to the study of 170 leading universities of USSR.

There were created tens of scientific-research institutes and scientific-creative unions in Azerbaijan in these years.There was established scientific centre of “Khazar” in 1975, and Baku scientific- creative union of cosmic research in 1978. Great achievements in the science were related with talanted activity of Hasan Aliyev, Mirali Qashgay, Shafayat Mehtiyev, Jalal Aliyev, Azade Mirzacanzadeh, Nadir Ibrahimov, Tofig Ismayilov, Hasan Abdullayev, Khudu Mammedov, Zarifa Aliyeva, Mirahmed Javad zadeh, Chingiz Cuvarli, Ziya Bunyadov, Mahmud Ismailov, Abdulazal Demirchizadeh, Feyzulla Kasimzadeh, Abdulkerim Alizadeh, Hamid Arasli, Alovsat Quliyev, Mammedaga Shiraliyev, Jamil Quliyev, Teymur Bunyatov, Rasim Efendiyev, Mikayil Heydarov,   Ogtay   Efendiyev,   Meshedikhanim   Nematova, Gara Ahmedov, Yashar Garayev, Ideal Narimanov, Jabbar Khalilov and others.

In these years, vehicles of mass information increased rapidly. There was published ten volumed “Azerbaijan Soviet Encyclopedia” in 1976-1987s. There were published 168 newspapers, 91 journals in 1990, about 1300 books per year.

The attention to spiritual values of nation increased. The anniversaries of Nizami, Ajemi, Nasimi, Tusi, Vaqif, Ashig Alesker, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Muslim Magomayev, Hussein Javid and other figures of science, literature and art, as well as the millennium of Azerbaijan theatre were celebrated. Giving high state awards to precious researches on the history of Azerbaijan and on the Azerbaijan language inspired intelligency on intensification of activity in these spheres. In 1974, the amount of hours, given to the study of the history of Azerbaijan in high schools increased.

In 1982, the ruins of Hussein Javid who was punished as “panturkist” was brought from Irkutsk region to his motherland- Nakhichevan.

In 1977, there was adobted resolution about the study of Nizami’s heritage, and there were conducted rich investigations in this sphere.

In 1990, there functioned more than 4500 general schools, 182 professional technicums, 77 secondary special institutions, 17 high- schools, 4605 libraries, 3680 clubs in the republic. There were 773 people who graduated in secondary and 105 men high school per person.

Heydar Aliyev did his best to achieve the real evoluation of the role of Azerbaijan nation in the victory over fashism. In the 70s, with the initiative of Heydar Aliyev, there was constructed monumental ansamble on the honour of 416th Azerbaijan division in Taganrog, as well as big monument on the honour of 77th Azerbaijan division was constructed in Sapun-gor, the monument of Mehti Husseinzadeh in Baku. Heydar Aliyev achieved to the recognition of the historical importance of Baku oil over fashism during the World War II by the administration of USSR. Baku was awarded with the orden of Lenin in 1987.

The attention to economic and cultural development of MKAR was strengthened. There were adopted several special resolutions about the development of the city of Shusha in the 70s. There was constructed the mousaleum over the grave of Molla Penah Vaqif in Shusha, were opened house-museums of Uzeyir Hajibeyov and Bulbul, was constructed the movement of Natavan in 1980-1981s. There were built multigrounded buildings, big hotels and administrative buildings in the city. Shusha became all-union travel place.

There was opened the branch of Azerbaijan pedagocical institute in Khankendi (then -Stepanakert) in 1973. There was laid down railway from Aghdam to Khankendi in 1979. In the period of Heydar Aliyev’s reign, Armenian separatists could not organize open uprisings. In 1977, there was decisively prevented the next attempt of raising the issue of Nagorno Karabakh.

Thanks to the realization of policy of economic progress and national revival, made by Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijan passed big way of development in 70s, the first half of 80s, differing from other regions of the empire. In December, 1982, Heydar Aliyev was nominated to the high post in Moscow. He was elected the member of Politbureou of CC of CPSS, was appointed the first vice-minister of the Soviet of Ministers of USSR and he utilized from this opportunities for the prosperity of Azerbaijan.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"