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Democratic and national-liberation movement in Southern Azerbaijan

Due to conduct revolutionary propaganda among South Azerbaijan workers there was created the group of “Ictimaiyyun-e-amiyyun (social- democratic)-Adalet” in Baku. This group played an important role in the attraction of South Azerbaijan workers to class struggle of 1905-1907s.

In these years Tabriz organization and “Secret Union”, which was the leading organ of provincial Union of Azerbaijan, realized wide activity. Namely, by the leadership of this organ there occurred first military uprising on February 8, 1907, in Tabriz. Rebels took the reign in the city occupying all state institutions, military camps and gun stocks. The arrival of Azerbaijan representatives to Tehran and begining of their activity caused to the rise of national movement in the country and on the other side much more intensified confrontations between the reaction, led by Muhammedali Shah and democratic forces. Revolutionary uprisings in Tabriz, Tehran and other areas of the country made the Shah accept all demands. Much more essential ones among the accepted demands were the transformation of provincial Union of Azerbaijan into governing organ of this territory and the signition of provisions to the Law of October 7, 1907.

But after a while, on May-June of 1908, Shah administration again began to struggle against revolution. On June 23, by the order of Shah, Russian general Lyakhov shooted the building of Azerbaijan Union and its capital by artillery. At the result of it Mejlis was withdrawn, the revolutionists were severely punished. Despite of it, at the result of the activity of provincial Union in many cities, the revolutionary movement raised to its highest level, including Tabriz and this city became the centre of Iranian revolution. It is important to mention that Sattarkhan, who got great fame with his heroism among Azerbaijani and with his inequal fought with reactioned forces done step on July 18 of 1908, which became the rotating point in the history of revolution. He attacked the centre of Tabriz with his small detachment, there were raised red flags over the whole city as the sign of victory. This event encouraged all revolutioners, the population again began to arm. There was created Military Union under the leadership of Sattarkhan in order to organize armed forces.

Despite of restoration of democratic movement in Southern Azerbaijan, there began contrevolutionary attack to Tabriz by the vehicle of several foreign forces, as well as Russia and England on December 20 of 1911. Heroic resistance lasted several days, but after the conquest of the city by the enemy on December 28 of 1911, the revolution was defeated.

Group of “Ictimaiyyun-e-amiyyun (social-democrats)-Adalet”, which played significant role in the attraction of South Azerbaijan workers   to class fought of 1905-1907 and which turned into independent social-democratic organization in 1916, was one of initiators of the creation of ACP (b) in 1920.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"