Home / Azerbaijan / Internal and foreign policy of Azerbaijan (end of 20tth and at beginning of 21st centuries)

Internal and foreign policy of Azerbaijan (end of 20tth and at beginning of 21st centuries)

Despite all the difficulties, the processes of construction of a democratic state and civil society in the country went on with a quickened tempo.

There was organized the commission under the chair of President for preparation of the first constitution of independent Azerbaijan state.

This commission prepared the project of “The Constitution of Azerbaijan Republic” with the specialties of state constitution and historical experience of our nation, as well as the experiences of leading democratic countries of the world. After the national discussion, with suggestions and notes, the project was accurated and adopted by the way of national referendum on November 12, 1995. New Constitution of the independent Azerbaijan shaped international-legal basis for the construction of democratic, secular and unitarian state.

One of the most important steps in the construction of democratic legal state was the conduction of new democratic parliamentary elections, happened on November 12, 1995. At the result of national elections there was created the first democratic Parliament of independent Azerbaijan. There were elected 125 deputies, representing various parties in Milli Mejlis.

There was created Special Comission on legal reforms under the president of the Azerbaijan Republic in February of 1996, for the preparation of law projects, replying to the traditions of the construction of legal state in developed states of the world and international law norms.

The President of Azerbaijan signed the Order “About the provision of rights and freedom of person and citizen” in February, 1998; the senzure was liquidated by the Order of President in August, 1998. The laws “About the means of mass information”, “About the Freedom of Religion”, “About the emigration and immigration to the country”, “About the freedom of Assembly” shaped suitable conditions for the provision of political pluralism, opened socio-political activity, coming to the big policy by the democratic and legal way. There were registered 34 political parties, more than 1000 social unions in the Republic in 2000. Among them “The Union of Sole Azerbaijan, “Organization of the Youth of Azerbaijan”, “Republic Children Organization”, “Society of Women of Azerbaijan” and etc. were known.

On December 12, 1999, there was firstly conducted municipal elections in the Azerbaijan Republic. The preparation and conduction of elections based on the democratic norms and world experience. There was created legal basis for the conduction of next elections to the parliament in much more democratic and tolerant conditions. On November 5, 2000, there was elected new parliament, consisted of the representatives from 4 political parties.

Azerbaijan entered to the Union on Security and Cooperation in Europe (USCE) on June 10, 1992. On May 12, 1994, at the result of great attempts of the president Heydar Aliyev there was concluded agreement about ceasefire in Armenian Azerbaijan conflict by the mediation of Russia and Minsk group of OSCE.

The basis of coorparation between NATO and Azerbaijan was laid down with the signing frame document-programme of “Coorparation for peace” on May 4, 1994. Azerbaijan was one of 27 states-members of OSCE, which first of all became the participant of this program. In April, 1996, there was signed official document on the frame of the programme of “Coorperation for Peace”, which determined concrete directions of coorperation.

In 1997, Georgia, Ukrain, Azerbaijan and Moldovia created the organization of GUAM with the aim of intensification of economic growth, shape of suitable conditions for the improvement of lifestock of the nation and transcommunication corridor, deepening of profitable trade relations.

At the result of multivectoral foreign policy of the president of Azerbaijan there began the restoration of Great Silk Way. There was conducted conference in Baku, dedicated to the restoration of Silk Way on September 8, 1998. 32 countries and 13 international organizations participated here. There were signed Baku declaration and multiside, major agreement about international transport on the development of the corridor of “Europe-Caucasus-Asia”. Headquarter of international organization, which was created in this conference was located in Baku; Azerbaijan became the centre of this international structure.

Coorparation of Azerbaijan with European economic commission in the frame of the programmes of TACIC and TRACECA provided to increase the amount of transite goods in the direction of Europe and Asia in 10 times, utilizing from transport communication of the Republic. The attempts to blocade and to make pressure to Azerbaijan were not succeded. During the organized Sammit of State leaders-the mumbers of OSCE in Istanbul the presidents of Azerbaijan, Goergia  and Turkey signed an agreement about the “Transportation of raw-oil through major export pipeline of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan through the territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey” on November 18, 1999. Simultaneously, the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Kazakhistan, USA signed “Istanbul Declaration”, where the support to the project was reflected in. So, there was realized next step for the provision of long-wide political, economic interests of Azerbaijan, the realization of wide size international coorperation, confirmation of peace, stability and security in the region by Heydar Aliyev.

Deeply examined oil strategy by Heydar Aliyev turned Azerbaijan into the state, which utilized from energetic potentiality of the Caspian Sea. The one of the most important directions of national and systematic economic reforms, which were realized in the country since 1995, was the privatization of state property and the shape of suitable conditions for the development of free business. The land and agrarian reforms have been ended by institutional viewpoint. More than 1350 thousand ha. lands were given to peasants, there were created farmer husbandry instead of collective and Soviet farms. There were given nonpercentage substitutions to farmer husbandry for the stimulation of the output of much more important agricultural productions and provision of food security of the country. This process influenced to the growth of rationality of agricultural spheres along with socio-political changes in the country; bright sample of this evidence is the decrease of import of several kinds of food production (for instance, meat, milk, potato, cucumber, onion and etc.) during latest years.

In this phase, there was ended the first stage of privatization of state property and began the realization of the second privatization programme. There’s examined the privatization of institutions of connection, transport, chemistry, auto construction and full-energetic complexes in the form of this programme.

During the latest years, the investment to economy of the country grew up. During the period after the achievement of independence there have been put more than 17 billion US dollars investments to the economy of the country thanks to financial sources.

It is especially important to mention that there was created the Oil Foundation at the end of 1999, among the realized actions in this period. This order, which was given on time told about the beginning of new phase in economic development and it should be evaluated as the impact of long-wide economic strategy of world-wide leader of  Azerbaijan nation-Heydar Aliyev, which was directed the receive of benefit from national resources for future generation and to the provision of complex development of the economy.

All of these evidences showed that the economy of the country raised to new level. By the words of worldwide leader, President Heydar Aliyev, the transition period in the country ended, there was constructed the Azerbaijan state, which possessed own independent political and economic basis at the beginning of the 21st century.

Stability, shaped in the country, the conducted internal reforms positively influenced to the extension of connections of Azerbaijan with foreign states. The Republic, which constructed its foreign policy on the ground of the principles of equality and mutual interests, turned into the country, which is opened for all states of the world. Gradually, the fame of independent Azerbaijan Republic is growing in Islamic world. The idea of restoration of Great Silk Way provided Azerbaijan to rescue from economic blocade. We can bravely say that the international conference, which was organized in Baku, on September 7-8, 1998, (with the participation of the representatives of 32 states and 13 international organizations) was on of the biggest events in the history of foreign policy of Azerbaijan.

At the end of 2002, there was attained the agreement about the export of extracted oil in Kazakhistan through Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. This event shaped condition for receiving of essential extra vehicles to state boudget.

At the beginning of new century, the agriculture remained as one of the most important spheres of Azerbaijan economy. Charactirized specialty of the realized agrarian reforms in Azerbaijan is that all properties and technics were privatized along with land parts in agriculture.

The social view of Azerbaijan village changed at the result of privatization of lands, there were formed husbandry of various kinds of property and multistage economy. 840 thousand families got the right of obtaining of land property. Monopoly system of state was liquidated the agrarian sector of the economy, there were shaped conditions for the enlargement of output issues and the sold of goods on the ground of the laws of market economy. Due to increase the attention of state to the development of ownership there was created the Soviet of Owners under the President of the Republic on August 27, 2002. At the result of realized policy in this sphere there was formed the detachment of businessmen and organizers of national industry with private capital.

In the first ten years of 21th century, Ilham Aliyev the president of Azerbaijan Republic has carried out progressive foreign policy according to our national interests. There are 71 diplomatic responsibilities of Azerbaijan in foreign countries of the world.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"