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Ottoman-Iranian wars in the territory of Azerbaijan. Ganja treaty of 1735

Russian-Turkish treaty of 1724, shaped very difficult circumstances in Azerbaijan. North Azerbaijan was divided between Russia and Turkey and South one-between Russia, Turkey and Persia. In all areas, where appaired the Ottoman troops, only civil population-raiyat and urban poors resisted them. Turkish government used from the aid of local feudals in the Northern and Western Azerbaijan. During Turkish occupation taxes and obligations of peasants, craftsmen and urban poors were not changed and stayed in the reign of Shah Persia at the end of the 17th century, but in some areas they were increased. The yoke under the subordination of Sultan Turkey was much more strong and it caused to the resistance of population. Turkish government captured the parts of Northern and Southern Azerbaijan with great forces. The “urban rabble” of Tabriz, as Sheikh Muhammed-Ali Khazin called craftsmen and poor people in his manuscripts showed heroic resistance to Turkish troops. Tabriz people ought to stop their resistance and they demanded free move from the city with their weapons and families. Finally, the resistance of Azerbaijan nation for independence was neutralized by the aid of big military forces, which were launched by Turkish government in the conquered lands (70-80 thousand regular troops, besides of local feudal detachments). At the same time, the treaty of 1724, could not liquidate the Turkish-Russian confrontation. The pass of several silk-growing regions to the hands of Russia much more aggravated her relations with England, which was interested in the export of silk from pre-Caspian regions and supported Turkey against Russia. Turkey utilized from Daghestan feudals and military detachments for the attacks to the lands of Azerbaijan that passed to Russia.

Several feudals of Azerbaijan and Daghestan easily passed either to the side of Russia, Turkey or Tahmasib II and simultaneously easily  betrayed them. The actions of these feudals were related with that they did not want to provide the strengthening of any of these states in their country; that is why they passed to the side of the state, which was less dangerous for their own authority.

Tsar government could not restore the destroyed agriculture and industry by Shah authority and feudal strife, as well as the Russian authority did not want to violate the priveleges of local feudals, who continued to exploit peasants with old wild measures.

Feudal obligations, which were existed during Iranian authority were preserved by tsar government. The profits of feudals decreased at that time, since the economy of the country was destroyed at the result of the wars. Agriculture, fish industry in Salyan and other areas, oil and salt industry were destroyed by wars.

Silk-growing came to the down. Little profits and big expences for the occupation of pre-Caspian provinces aggravated the financial circumstances of tsar authority. Tahmasib II did not stop to demand their return. That is why, tsar government decided to give these lands back to Iran in one case, if the Shah was able to preserve the authority of them in his hands and did not permit the pass of these areas to the subordination of Ottoman Turkey.

The implementation of the decisions about the rejection of the conquest in the Caspian shore intensified the events in Iran. At the end of 20s of the 18th century general Nadir, who was from the afshars of Kizilbash tribe by origin achieved great fame here soon. Nadir’s troops withdrew Afgans from Isfahan and other local areas, as well as conducted successful war with Turks. In 1730, Turkish detachments were withdrawn from Southern Azerbaijan. Now Russia confronted with strengthened Iran.

Nadir khan, who gave good lesson to Afgans and returned from Herat did not recognize the latest reconciliation of Tahmasib with Turkey in 1732 and declared that the time of this agreement came to end. Leaning to the emirs of troops, he shifted Tahmasib II from the throne in August of 1732. Simultaneously, the relations with Turkey aggravated day-by-day. The government of Anna Ivanovna refused from Gilan and Mazandaran (1732) behalf on Iran in order to provide military alliance with Iran against Turkey. At the same time, Russian administration gave the subordination of Azerbaijan and Daghestan to Iran according to the Ganja treaty of 1735, in one case that Iran and its real governor Nadir khan would preserve military alliance with Russia and would not conclude separate peace treaty with Turkey.

At that time Nadir took Shamakha in 1734, overwhelmed and made Surkhay khan Kazikumukhlu, who had ruled Shirvan from the name of Turkey since 1728, escaped to Daghestan; he subordinated the part of Daghestan again and captured Ganja in 1735. But Nadir khan did not implement the one of main conditions of Ganja treaty of 1735, with Russia – in 1736, the representative of Nadir khan in Erzurum concluded treaty with Turkey, which returned all regions that passed to Turkey according to Istanbul treaty of 1724, to Iran. So, all Eastern part of South Caucasus with Azerbaijan, Chukhursaad and Eastern Georgia passed to the subordination of Iran. There were shaped rumors about the death of the last representative of Safavids origin– Shah Abbas III till the “choice” of Nadir khan Afshar in Mughan. There had not already been any juridic person in front of Nadir. Nadir khan, who was engaged in obeying Daghestan, came and settled in Mughan at the end of winter of 1736 and sent all cavalry-men of the country with fermans-orders: governors, rais of regions, nobility and scientists were invited to Northern Azerbaijan – to Mughan for assembly. Most of the invited people had been prepared men of Nadir khan and they declared that only Nadir khan was werthy to the throne. According to one source, all people, who refused were assosinated immediately. The beylerbeys of Karabakh from the origin of Kajars also rejected against Nadir khan and recentful ruler took the Borchali, Shamsaddil and Kazakh Sultanates from Karabakh and gave them to Kartli tsar, Teymuraz.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"