Home / Azerbaijan / Participation of Northern Azerbaijan in World War II

Participation of Northern Azerbaijan in World War II

On September 1, 1939, Germany attacked to Poland. After a day, the governments of England and France declared war on Germany. And so the World War II began. In a short time the fascist Germany, with its ally-Italy occupited and subordinated approximately all countries of Central, Western and South-Eastern Europe. So, the military power of the aggressor increased in two times.

Due to achieve the world supremacy, Germany attacked to USSR. According to “Barbarossa” plan, german troops had to strike with Soviet army and enter to the line of Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan in winter.

Azerbaijan possessed special place in expansive plans of Germany.

The wealth of Azerbaijan, its suitable strategic and geopolitical circumstances between East and West attracted the fascists attention.

German administration hoped to conquer the whole East by the aid of utilizing of Baku oil. It planned to create comissariate in Azerbaijan, which had to obey Caucasian Reykhs comissariate with the residence in Tbilisi. After the victory over Soviet Union, Germany examined to conquer other territories, which were settled by Turkish nations, as well as to create there the state, called “Great Turkistan”.

Extraction, refining and export of Baku oil was instructed to “Continental oil community” in March, 1941, appointed big German leaders to great industrial enterprises of Azerbaijan. Hitler personally ordered to turn Baku into military object after the conquest. There were prepared accurate maps-plans of industrial and military objects of Baku and Absheron.

The invasion plan of fascists to the Caucasus was called “Edelveys”. According to this plan, the conquest of Baku was examined to September 25.

The USA and Great Britain were also interested in Caucasus, as well as Azerbaijan. According to the designed plan by them, called “Velvet” there was examined to withdraw Soviet troops from Caucasus to Stalingrad and to settle military forces of USA and Great Britain in these territories. So, they wanted to annex the Caucasus, as well as Azerbaijan from USSR.

In the first years of the war, USSR also had severe plans about Azerbaijan. According to this plans, the population of Azerbaijan had to be deportated to the Middle Asia and Kazakhistan. The reason of this plan was that Soviet administration did not entrust to Azerbaijan. But, the victories of Red Army in Stalingrad and Caucasus, as well as the arguments of M.C.Baghirov prevented the realization of this idea by Stalin.

Since the first days of the war Azerbaijan nation raised to the fought against fascist invaders along with other nations of USSR. More than 40 thousand boys and girls expressed their voluntary participation in the war. There were created hundreds of detachments of defence. During the war, there were directed about 640 thousand peoples, as well as 100 thousand women from Azerbaijan to Soviet army. There were established such divisions in Azerbaijan as 402nd division in 1941, 223rd- in October, 116th-in March-September, 1942, 271st-in August-September of the same year. The 77th division, which lost most part of its detachment during the defence of Crimea was renewed in May, 1942.

On June 28, 1941, all forms and methods of work in the republic were completely constructed in the coherence of military demands.

Work day of workers and servants was increased to 11 hours. Holidays were liquidated. There was examined prisionary from 5 to 8 years, because of the retire from the work. There was applied card system of the selling of products and industrial goods.

Azerbaijan nation gave impact to the struggle against fashism.

They created strong rear and did their best at work. All spheres of industry were conducted for the output to front. There worked women and teenagers in the work places. There were prepared more than 40 thousand qualificated workers in a short time. Oil-workers provided front and agricultural with fuel. During the war, they gave 75 million ton of oil. 70% of all demands of Red Army to fuel was provided by Baku oil-workers.

Baku turned into one of the arsenals of Soviet Army. There were made “Katyusha” ballistic missiles, “Shnikin” machine-guns and the shooting-plains of “Yak-3” here. Generally, there were produced 130 types of weapons and military equipment. The railways of “Culfa- Mincivans”, “Salyan-Neftchala”, “Papanin-Haciqabul” and others, which possessed great military and husbandry essence were exploited in 1941. There began to the construction of Baku automobile plant.

There were cultivated technical cultures, which had military essence in the collective and soviet farms of Azerbaijan. During the war agricultural workers gave hundred thousands ton of agricultural products to the country.

During 1941-1943s, Azerbaijan nation gave 15 kg gold, 952 kg silver, which cost 311 million rubles to the foundation of defence. There were sent 1,6 million various items and 125 vagoon of warm dress to the front.

In the autumn of 1943, there was created republic Committee of aid and its regional commissions in Azerbaijan in order to restorate the husbandry of regions, liberated from occupation. By the vehicle of this committee there were sent big monetary amounts, essential quantity of equipment, construction of material, industrial equipment and etc. to the oil workers of North Caucasus, husbandries of Leningrad, Stalingrad, Stavropol, Ukraine.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"