Home / Azerbaijan / Socio-economic development and political conditions in Northern Azerbaijan (1945-1980s)

Socio-economic development and political conditions in Northern Azerbaijan (1945-1980s)

In the post-war period, the influence of Soviet empire strengthened in all over the world. It turned into powerful military-political force – to the state, which possessed nurclear weapon. Socialist system extended and strengthened under its authority. All of these became possible thanks to the strengthening of totalitarian regime and commanding – administrative system in the centre, as well as in the regions.

The damage, made by the war was soon abolished. During 10 years, there were constructed 108 new big industrial enterprises. The number of workers and servants increased in two times. There was applied new technics and technologies in the industry. There were revealed new oil and gas resources and began to their exploitation. In 1948, there were firstly created oil-constructions in the open sea. The extraction of oil increased in 1,4 times for 10 years. There were opened new oil-refinery plants, as well as New Baku oil-refinery plant in 1953.

There grew chemical, energetic spheres of the industry, as well as there imporved colourful and black metallurgy here. There shaped such new industrial centers, as Sumgayit, Minghechevir, Dashkesen, Ali- Bayramli. There were opened new industrial enterprises: Chemical plant (1945), the plant of synthetic rubber (1952), aluminium plant (1955) in Sumgayit, Karadagh plant (1951), “Northern State Regional Electrostation” (1954) in Absheron, Minghechevir HES (1954), Baku plant of gas-refinery (1961), in 1958-1966s there were constructed Minghechevir cable plant, Baku plant of refrigirators, Ganja aluminium plant, in 1968, there was exploited warm electrostation in Ali-Bayramli (Shirvan). There were exploited tens of new industrial enterprises of local, light and food industry – shoes, furniture, leather, weaving fabrics, carpet combinates during those years.

The means of communication developed. There were exploited ferry of Baku-Krasnovodsk (1962), railway line of Yevlakh-Barda- Aghdam (1967), first 6 stations of Baku underground (1967). Automobile, marine, river and air transports gained essential development.

There occurred essential changes in the construction too. The Housing construction extended in cities and villages. There was constructed current palace named after Shahriyar, the Government House, University, Baku port, State cirque, Republic Stadium and Academic city in Baku.

There occurred several improvements in the agriculture of the Republic, at the result of realization of a line of organizational- administrative reforms-liqudiation of small collective farms, machine- tractor stations, the increasement of demands to leading staff, strengthening of machine-tractor parks of collective and Soviet farms, enlargement of irrigation system (there were exploited High-Karabakh, Samur-Absheron canals). The output of silk, cotton, tobacco, vegetables and grapes had increased. But, there weren’t given enough attention to the growth of animal-husbandry.

Commanding governance and pressure of sole-party system, state and administrative organs of Communist party to Soviet, Court and Social organizations, as well as to trade unions delayed the improvement of national powers of the society. The leaders of the empire, maintaining internationalism and brotherhood relations of nations, in reality conducted the discrimination policy against Azerbaijan nation. Utilizing from this, Armenian nationalists officially put to the ageuda the pass of Nagorno-Karabakh Antonomous Region of Azerbaijan to the structure of Armenia SSR. In 1948-1953s, Azerbaijan people were again confronted with mass deportation from the lands of their ancestors- Western Azerbaijan (former Armenia SSR and current Armenia Republic). About 144 thousand Azerbaijanis were forcefully departed to Kur-Araz, lawland of Azerbaijan under the view of “voluntary emigration”, most of them could not be adapted to severe climate conditions and died soon.

Hundreds of Azerbaijan toponyms, which were annexed from Azerbaijan SSR and given to the current Republic of Armenia and Georgia, were changed. Simultaneously, there were created suitable conditions for the growth of the number of Armenian population in Azerbaijan, especially in new industrial centres and in Mountainous Karabakh.

The realization of reforms on the improvement of political system in the mid of 50s, and in the growth of “socialist democracy” were not resulted.

In these years, the population of the republic essentially increased and the number of the population rose in two times at the end of 50s and in the 60s, it grew to 5 million people. The process of urbanization intensified.

Azerbaijan science gained a line of essential achievements.Scientists discovered more than 300 new oil-gas resources, construction material and lots of sources of mineral water.

But the communist ideology essentially limited the development of spiritual culture. Those, who disagreed with this were pursued; in 1950, prominent philosopher Heydar Husseinov, who protested against these meausers killed himself.

Political thaw in the USSR, which began after the death of Stalin, influenced to Azerbaijan too. M.C.Baghirov, who worked in various posts in 20s, was appointed the first secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan and Baku Committee of Parties in 1934. He led all realized repressions in Azerbaijan. Only after the death of Stalin M.C.Baghirov was dismissed from all his posts. In 1956, he was killed together with his Armenian assistants. I.D.Mustafayev was appointed the first secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan. But in July, 1959, Mustafayev, who did not satisfy the centre with his national mood, was dismissed from his post. After him V.Y.Akhundov was appointed the first secretary of CC of CP of Azerbaijan.

In July, 1969, Heydar Aliyev was choosen the leader of Azerbaijan. Since 1944, he worked in the Committee of State Security. Thanks to his talant and world-outlook, Heydar Aliyev rose till the title of major-general. In 1964, he was appointed the vice-chairman and in 1967, – the chairman of the Committee of State Security under the Soviet Ministry of Azerbaijan SSR.

Heydar Aliyev strengthened the administrative system of the Republic in a short time. The demand to the staff increased. There began serious struggle against the corruption. In the assembly of CC of CP of Azerbaijan in August, 1969, Heydar Aliyev firstly in the history of Soviet region openly expressed about the existence of such socialist unjustice as corruption in the country and stressed about the importance of struggle   against them.   He   possessed great authority   in the administration of USSR. In 1976, Heydar Aliyev was elected the candidate to the membership of Politbureou of CC of CPSS.

In the years of Heydar Aliyev’s reign, there were exploited more than 250 plants, fabrics in the Republic. There were created more than 630 thousand new workplaces. By his initiative, the USSR administration adopted five special resolutions for the development of national husbandry of the Republic. There was given 21,3 billion rubles i.e. more than 1,5 times means in comparision with previous 50s, for the development of national husbandry of the Republic. 69% of main industrial foundations were renewed. The contribution of industry by foundations raised 2,7 times. The attention to oil industry increased. There were revealed new oil areas. The oil was extracted in 2800-6500 metres depth of the sea. There were created such oil constructions as “Khazar” and “Shelf” in the sea. There were exploited the constructions of ELOU-ABT in oil-refinery plants in Baku. By its volume of production in oil autoconstruction Azerbaijan was in the second place after the USA in the world.

There continued structural changes in the industry in these years.

In 1975, there was exploited the Baku air-conditioner plant in a short time. There were exploited electro-constructional plants of “Ulduz” and “Azon” as well as Sumgait compressors plant, Baku plant of electric equipment. There were constructed tens of plants on the output of goods of national utilization, as well as Absheron and Siyazan chicken fabrics, Baku shampain vines plant, Baku lamp plant, two house- constructional combinates in Baku, Sumgayit and Minghachavir house- constructional combinates, Sumgait glass plant and other enterprises.

There were exploited Araz, Terter, Shamkir hidroelectrostations, and 8 big energetic blocks in Minghachevir. Energetic independence of Azerbaijan was provided.

The development of agriculture intensified in the Republic in these years. The material-technical basics of collective and Soviet farms strengthened. There was realized wide programme of irrigation. Great Mil, Absheron, Lenkoran, Cigar-Cibar, Shamkir canals, Araz water fence, Arpachay, Sarsang, High-Khanbulanchay, Shamkir and other water-stocks were exploited. Cotton-growing, vegetable-growing and growing grapevines rapidly developed. Barda, Aghcabadi, Sabirabad, and Beylagan regions became big producers of cotton. In Lenkoran-Astara and Quba-Khachmaz regions were intensively developed vegetable- growing. At the end of 70s and at the beginning of 80s, there were planted new vineyards in the square of 90 thousand hectare in the Republic. There were constructed large animal-husbandry complexes. There were fostered 126 big cattle in the Republic.

Thanks to wide work in the economy in 1970-1985s, the productivity of labour in the industry grew in 2,1 times and in agriculture – in 1,8 times. The profit in national husbandry constituted 335%, which was 2 times more than all union indicators.

The created economic, scientific-technical and cultural potential in these years shaped the ground for future existence of our Republic in the context of complete independence of the state. Azerbaijan, along with Belorussia was one of two Republics of USSR, which not only did not get any dotations from the Union Centre and provided its own demands, but also presented essential part of wealth on behalf of other republics.

Simultaneously, there was conducting wide program of socio- cultural construction in Azerbaijan. Baku, Ganja, Sumgait and other cities grew up, there were set down new settlements in the suburbs of Baku and Ganja. There were constructed settlements with general amount of 20 million square metres, hundreds of modern, beautiful buildings, laid down roads, constructed bridges, parks, villages and so on.

At the result of effective activity in the spheres of science and education in 1969-1982s, our country that gained independence needed to high-qualified specialists. In 1969-1982s, there were directed more than 15 thousand people to leading high schools of USSR. H.Aliyev considered that for grounding the future independence of Azerbaijan Republic there had to be material-technical basics, powerful economy, constructed in 1970-1985. He highly appreciated these reforms and mentioned: “Today we can surely say that state sovergnity and economic independence of Azerbaijan, systematic enlargement, international economic realtions, gradually and deep integration to the world economy based on the potentials of national husbandry, which were founded in 1970-1985s”.

In the autumn of 1977, there occurred a line of uprisings in South Azerbaijan. The biggest student uprising, happened in this year and was related with the anniversary of the creation of National government of South Azerbaijan (1945). Major goals of these uprisings were Shah reign and western life-stock in the country.

There was organized many thousandth demonstration in Kum, on January 7, 1978, which demanded the liquidation of Shah reign and other demands. The police fired the demonstrators, at the result of which, were killed tens, wounded hundreds of men.

On February 18, in the fortieth day of Kum events, the appeal of religious leaders of Tabriz raised all citizens of the city. There participated intellegency, students, pupils and etc. in this demonstration. The government directed regular army against demonstrators.

Demonstration turned into uprising. Bloody confrontation lasted two days. In the suppression of uprising, which more than 10 thousand people participated in, there were killed and wounded several thousand men.

Tabriz uprising which shaped storm in whole Iran, became the beginning of the revolution of 1978-1979s. The role of clergy grew during the revolutionary movement against Shah reign. Among them, the influence of Ayatullah (religious leader) Ruhulla Musevi Khomeyni grew much more.

It is important to mention that R.M.Khomeyni was exilted to Turkey in 1964, because of his expressions against the internal and foreign policy of Muhammed Rza Shah, he moved to Irag from there.

In 1978, by the order of Irag administration he obliged to leave this country and moved to Paris.

The arrival of Khomeyni from Paris to Teheran on February 1, 1979 became the reason of much more enlargement of the uprising. The uprising of February 11, in Teheran ended with the victory. On February 15, contrevolutionary forces revolted in Tabriz. There participated all population of Tabriz in the suppression of this revolt and after bloody battles Tabriz settlers captured the military garrison.

On February 16, South Azerbaijan was completely cleaned up from the contre revolutionary forces. There died 25 thousand Azerbaijanis during Iran Revolution of 1978-1979.

The supporters of Ayatullah Khomeyni, who captured the power realized national referendum, at the result of which was proclaimed Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) on April 1, 1979.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"