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The collapse of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Stability, which was shaped in internal-political life of Azerbaijan did not last long. There shaped Bolshevic danger over the country. On February 11, 1920, the first Congress of Communist Party of Azerbaijan began to its activity. The Congress directed to the realization of armed state revolution in Azerbaijan. Local Bolsheviks conducted active propaganda against the national government. But it was obvious that the Azerbaijani communists did not only rely on themselves in the realization of state revolution. They hoped to the aggression of Russia.

The most essential event in political life of Azerbaijan was the beginning of governmental crisis. At the end of March, certain organs arrested socialists, who conducted underground activity. Related with this event, socialistic fraction rejected to defend the cabinet of N.Yusifbeyli. On April 1, the cabinet of N.Yusifbeyli dismissed. The formation of new committee was entrusted to M.Hajinsky. He prepared to form coalitional government with the participation of left powers, including communists. But, the Bolsheviks rejected to participate in that government. They began to the preparation of state revolution more stronger. On April 22, when the needed time was missed, M.Hajinsky warned the parliament that the formation of new government was impossible. So, the governmental crisis, which began at the beginning of April, much more aggravated the political circumstances in Azerbaijan along with foreign danger.

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of RSFSR, Q.V.Chicherin demanded the Azerbaijan government to begin the war against Denikin in his note of January 2, 1920. In responding note, the minister of foreign affairs of Azerbaijan, F.Khoysky mentioned that the war between Soviet government and Denikin was the internal issue of Russian nation and the government of Azerbaijan would not be intervened to internal affairs of Russia.

The notes, presented at the end of February and at the beginning of March, 1920, were close to this content. Gradually, it became obvious that Russia seeked excute for the prepared military interference by these diplomatic steps. Real attitude to Azerbaijan was reflected in the telegramme of Lenin to I.T.Smilge and Q.K.Orcanikidze on March 17, 1920. There was written followings on that telegramme: “The conguest of Baku is very, very essential for us. Direct all your forces to this”.

Armenian representatives, who arrived in Moscow suggested their aid to dethrone of Azerbaijan government in the substructution of territorial claims. They promised to realize revolt of Armenians against local government in the territory of Mountaneous Karabakh and to distract the attention of Azerbaijan army from Northern borders, creating suitable conditions for the entrance of Russian troops to Azerbaijan without any prevents.

In March, 1920, there began the attack of Armenian Dashnakstuyun band, who armed by the side of Bolsheviks, as well as white Guards to the garrison of Khankendi. Due to suppress Karabakh revolt there was immediately sent military forces, commanded by general Salimov from Baku to Mountaneous part of Karabakh.

So, in the eve of April conquest the Northern borders of Azerbaijan was not defended. On the other side, the local Bolsheviks and small part of Azerbaijan population, who supported them, much more intensified the propaganda against Azerbaijan government by utilizing the revolt of Dashnaks; they called the population to appeal to Russia for military aid and to invite Red army here in order to restorate “legal order” in the country. The group of representatives, which “invited” 11th Red Army to Baku was led by A.Mikoyan.

Moscow had already prepared the plan of invasion to Baku and on April 25-26, Russian troops crossed through Northern frontiers to Azerbaijan. Major military forces of Azerbaijan was in the Western front and there could not organize good resistance against 11th Red Army.

When Soviet troops approached to Baku, local Bolsheviks presented notification to Azerbaijan Parliament about the passing of the authority from the name of Baku Bureou of Caucasian Euvirons Commitee (AKP) on April 27. In its last assembly, organized on April 27, Parliament accepted resolution about the pass of the authority to Azerbaijan communists, which consisted of six clauses after severe disputes.

According to this resolution, the government gave the authority to Muslim Bolsheviks in the provisions:

  • They would preserve of the entire independence of Azerbaijan;
  • The created government would be temporary;
  • Former statesmen would be preserved in their posts;
  • The life and property of statesmen, the members of parliament would be protected; and so on…

So, on April 27, 1920, at the result of foreign aggression-expansive policy of Russia, which did not respond to international relations and international law, National state and its government, which was existed in Azerbaijan and recognized by world states was dethroned by violation. After two days, in Moscow and Azerbaijan press was published the prepared information about the revolution occurred in Azerbaijan in the same day.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"