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The Formation pf MKAR and Nakhichevan ASSR in the structure of Azerbaijan SSR

Azerbaijan, which lost its independence and sovergnity on April 28, 1920, was included to the structure of restorated Russian Empire under the name of Soviet.

It became impossible to think about Azerbaijan as the state, which was able independently solve political and economic problems and realized the dreams of its nation.

Leaders of USSR conducted discussions and expressed the thoughts of Lenin and Stalin about autonomy, national-cultural autonomy and “independence” with the aim of “establishment” of the future status of re-conguered provinces-republics. Lenin, who learnt the attitude of local population about this issue did not approve Stalin’s position and expressed the thought of giving “independence” to these nations. In reality, Lenin wanted to be seen as democrat, under the shadow of Stalin. The provinces-states, which “entered” to the “union” under the name of “independence”, accepted even their own state attributes. But the state attributes of united republics-flags, gerbs, anthems were looked like to one another only the gerbs of Geogia and Armenia differed a little bit.

The one of the policy of Armenian Bolsheviks, directed against Azerbaijan and was the creation of Armenian autonomy in our republic and the solution of existing national problem. In reality, with the action they wanted to put bomb inside of Azerbaijan which was ready to fire in an essential time. Several responsible comissions, which were directed to Mountaenous Karabakh with this aim, declared that there was not any national problem in Mountaneous Karabakh. Neverthless Anastas Mikoyan in Moscow, Levon Mirzoyan and other Armenian Bolsheviks in Baku put to the agenda the essence of the autonomy of Mountaneous Karabakh by the vehicle of their assistants; they succeeded to solve this  problem behalf on themselves. The formation of Mountaneous- Karabakh Autonomous Region (MKAR) in the structure of Azerbaijan was the sample of illegal interference of territorial integrity of Azerbaijan nation.

On July 7, 1923, there was accepted decision about the formation of MKAR by the decree of Azerbaijan CEC. In reality, the decision that was adopted by the instruction and order of CC RCP (b) meant the establishment of extra state entity for Armenians, who had their own state entity inside of USSR in the structure of other state. The facts from the letter of Orcanikidze, who always conducted rival policy against Azerbaijan and who was the member of Politbureou to the comissarie of foreign affairs, Chicherin proved the violated implementation of these meausures. He wrote with initiative: “If Mountaneous Karabakh and Zangezur would be immediately joint to Armenia, who can oblige Azerbaijan to reject from other regions. I would make Azerbaijan give autonomy to Mountaneous Karabakh and Zangezur”.

The centre shaped opportunity for the increasement of Armenian nationality in Azerbaijan. So, there were shaped conditions for the weakening of national union in Azerbaijan.

One of the goals of the creation of MKAR in Azerbaijan were measures, implemented against the strengthening of Azerbaijan statehood. The centre, which utilized from all means against the strengthening of national statehood in united republics; the created autonomies under the “defence of national rights” on national ground in their context made condition for the development of nationality and put the “bomb” of separatism. It was not casual that when there were realized limitation on the protection of national traditions, free sending of religious idols, enlargement of the study of Azerbaijan language, literature and history under the excute of the struggle against panturkism and panislamism, the court processes were conducted in Armenian language, religious idols were sent freely, there were shaped suitable conditions for extension of the study of Armenian language, literature, history in Mountaneous Karabakh.

On February 9, 1924, Nakhichevan Autonomous Region turned into Nakhichevan ASSR in the structure of Azerbaijan SSR by the decision of Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee and Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee.

The relations with Nakhichevan ASSR were accurated in the second constitution of Azerbaijan SSR, which was accepted in the 4th All-Azerbaijan Congress of Soviets, on March 14, 1925.

There was “attached” the article to the Constitution of USSR, adopted on Januray 31, 1924, (in the second All-union Congress of Soviets), which gave right to united republics to realize their state authority and to apart from the structure of the USSR. But the centralization, realized in administrative order prevented the realization of “attached independence”. Republics could not appart from the structure of USSR, as well as they were not able to shape their budget, amount of tax collection and etc. There was existed national monetry unit in the first years, but after a while this money was so non-precious that nobody wanted to exchange with it. So, national money – bons, which was one of the attributes of real independence was liquidated too.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"