Home / Azerbaijan / The Soviet State Contruction in Northern Azerbaijan

The Soviet State Contruction in Northern Azerbaijan

On April 28, 1920, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee (PRC), which was created by 11 Red Army, proclaimed Azerbaijan the independent Soviet Socialist Republic. PRC confirmed the structure of new government-Soviet of National Comissaries (SNC) of Azerbaijan SSR: N.Narimanov-the chairman of SNC and national comissarie of foreign affairs; Ch.Ildirim-the national comissarie of military-marine affairs; Q.Sultanov-the national comissarie of internal affairs; A.Q.Karayev-the national comissarie of labour and justice; Q.Musabeyov-the national comissarie of agriculture, industry and trade; M.D.Husseinov-national comissarie of finance; D.Bunyatzade-national comissarie of enlightenment and state control; C.Vezirov-national comissarie of post, telegraph and transcommunication; A.Alimov-national comissarie of medicine. It’s important to mention this fact, N.Narimanov was in Astrakhan at that time and did not know anything about the events, occurred in Baku. In fact, whole authority in Baku was concertrated in the hands of chief of political field, Tankratov, Kirov and other commanders of 11th Red Army.

Azerbaijan Provisional Revolutionary Committee appealed to V.I.Lenin about the conclusion of alliance on April 29, and the Soviet of National Comissaries responded to this appeal and recognized the independent Azerbaijan SSR on May 5.

The recognition of the independence of Azerbaijan government, which was created by the force of 11th Red Army, aimed to provide the realization of expansive policy of Soviet Russia. In the secret letter of Q.K.Orcanikidze and S.M.Kirov to V.I.Lenin (on May 2) there was mentioned the necessity of formal recognition of the sovergnity of Azerbaijan, but they advised him to give the reign in the Soviet of National Camissaries to them, not to N.Nerimanov.

On November 9, 1920, I.V.Stalin openly mentioned in the general assembly of SC ACP (b), Baku Committee ACP (b), SC of Caucasian Bureou, Azerbaijan Revolutionary Commitee, Regional Executive Commitees and the members of presidium about the problem of independence of Soviet Azerbaijan: “I am not defender of the independence of Azerbaijan. There could not be independence in one part of communists from other ones”. Simultaneously he advised: “We should say that Azerbaijan-the independent country entered to the alliance with Russia. If there would not be such alliance, Russia would weaken and Azerbaijan would pass under the dependence of Antanta.

This independence is the problem of our strategic policy”.

The position of V.I.Lenin and SC of RCP (b) was directed to the governing of Azerbaijan by the vehicle of Russian representative. This was proved by the creation of Political Bureou of SC RCP (b), which was compiled on the ground of the project, written V.I.Lenin. There was instructed to Orcanikidze, who stayed in Baku and took general political leadership of Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee.

Secretaries of SC of ACP (b) and Baku Committee ACP (b) as well as all responsible workers of party machinery of state apparate were appointed from non-Azerbaijanis-especially from Russian, Armenian, Georgian and others. In November, 1920, when the secretary of SC of ACP (b) was Q.N.Kaminsky only two members from 5 ones- N.Narimanov and M.D.Husseinov and two from the members of organized bureou-D.Buniatzadeh and A.Karayev were Azerbaijanis. No one from the chiefs and secretaries from five or six fields of SC was Azerbaijan, only in one section-“section of work in the village”-the chief was K.Akhundov and the secretary-T.Husseinov.

Quarrels between Levon Mirzoyan and S.M.Kirov caused to the dismissal of Kaminsky who was in rational policy to Azerbaijan from his post and the first secretary of SC of ACP (b) was choosen Kirov. Major duty of Kirov consisted of the distruction of specific Azerbaijan specialties. In that work his major assistants were Mikoyan, Sarkis, Mirzoyan, Bogdatyan, I.Sviridov and others.

In the resolution, accepted in the second Congress of the party, which was conducted on October 16-23, 1920, there were refltected position and major direction of the activity of AKP (b). In the resolution was specially mentioned that Azerbaijan Communist Party was the part of Russian Communist Party. In reality, by the vehicle of this resolution there were done essential steps, which were “legalized” the entrance of Azerbaijan to the structure of Russia.

ACP, which only differed with its name from RCP (b) was closely related with this organ and implemented all decisions, accepted by leading organs, adobting the program of RCP (b). ACP considered that the obligations of RCP were its obligations too.

In the mid of 1920, there was established Soviet authority in all regions of Azerbaijan, besides of Nakhichevan, despite of local resisances. But the expansive, compulsory activity and repressions in the regions, realized by 11th Red Army, which conducted themselves as colonizators, caused to the beginning of armed uprisings of population against the Soviet authority.

Uprisings, occurred in May-June of 1920, in Ganja, Terter, Aghdam, Shusha and Zagatala were suppressed by 11th Red Army. Along with rebels there were killed thousands of civil people-children, women, old men. Azerbaijan Bolsheviks were also taken an active part in the neutralization of these revolts and they were even awarded with ordens and medals. One of the rewarded Azerbaijanian for bloody suppression of Ganja uprising was Hamid Sultanov.

Azerbaijan Revolutionary Committee began to implement laws, which examined the transformation into socialist stage in Azerbaijan economy in the sample of Soviet Russia. Revolutionary Commitee gave decree about the liquidation of specific specialties to the land on May 5, 1920, and on May 15, about the nationalization of forests, water and depth of land in the territory of Republic, on May 24, about the nationalization of oil industry, on June 6, about the nationalization of Caspian trade navy, on June 9, about the nationalization of banks, on June 15-about the nationalization of fishery industry.

There was created the Soviet of National Husbandry (SNH) in order to nationalized enterprises. The chairman of SNH was appointed the chairman of supreme oil of RSFSR – I.I.Solovyov, who came to Baku with 11th Red Army.

As political activity, the economy and oil industry, which speciality was the major sphere of national husbandry of Azerbaijan SSR and ruled by the representatives of Russia that came here.

Baku oil was the main factor in the conquest of Azerbaijan by Russian government. A day later, after the establishment of Soviet authority in Azerbaijan, on April 29, V.I.Lenin mentioned that Baku would play an important role in the improvement of Soviet Russia.

On April 15, by the order of V.I.Lenin and decision of Soviet of Defence and Labour, A.R.Serebrovsky was appointed to the post of chairman of Baku Oil Committee of the independent Azerbaijan Republic. This fact signed to the planned conquest of Azerbaijan by Soviet Russia. Even in 1918, Russia concluded agreement about the division of Baku oil with Germany. Only behalf on the resistance of Azerbaijan representative, who were in Istanbul at that time, including M.E.Resulzadeh this plan was prevented.

A.Serebrovsky, who came to Baku by the order of V.I.Lenin in April, 1920, led especially to the increasement of the extraction of oil and oil-products and their dispatch to Russia.

At result of special activity of Serebrovsky, there was sent 160 million pud oil and oil-products to Russia at the end of 1920.

A.Serebrovsky was awarded with the orden of labour of RSFSR first of all, for his successful organization of marine dispatch of the oil; by the decision of Presidium of all-Russian SNH he was awarded with gold watch.

A.Severbrovsky did not want to recognize Soviet Azerbaijan and did not obey to any local chairmen and their instructions. He did not agree to give even little part of profits from oil to Azerbaijan. N.Narimanov expressed his disagreement to this policy for several times but he did not achieve any success. He considered that all these actions were realized by Serebrovsky himself and did not know that namely Lenin and Stalin stood behind him. In his letter, addressed to supreme Secretary of RCP (b)-I.Stalin Narimanov wrote: “Soviet Azerbaijan voluntarily declared about the belonging of oil to Soviet Republic “monarchy”, whose “king” was Serebrovsky. He is considering that he lied to Azerbaijanis with crusants and stars”.

No, there was explained to each worker and peasant the essence of oil for Soviet Russia.

In the first year, Azerbaijan not only gave oil, but also paid salary to workers from its own Treasury.

“May there be much more international than it?” On May 19, 1920, the first All-Azerbaijan Congress of Soviet confirmed the first constitution (main law) of Azerbaijan SSR, which based on the constitution of RSFSR. So, Azerbaijan became the first constitutional state among the countries of the East. According the constitution, Military-revolutionary Commitee was liquidated. There was choosen Central Executive Commitee of Azerbaijan SSR (Azerbaijani CEC) in the Congress, which became the highest legislative and governing organ of state authority in the Republic. There was confirmed the structure of the Soviet of National Comissaries (SNC), which was the executive organ in the first session of the CEC of Azerbaijan SSR. The chairman of SNC was elected N.Narimanov.

Lenin and other Soviet leaders, who shaped confrontations among the leaders of Azerbaijan SSR, encountered them against one another, gradually defended the position of one or another side; they showed themselves as the defenders of objectivity, but in fact, they were creaters of all conflicts. They called N.Narimanov as “Lenin of the East” and with other names and applauded him, but sometimes they prevented to the realization of his actions, raised A.Q.Karayev, M.D.Husseinov, R.A.Akhundov, who were ready to everything for taking leading posts against him. The protests of N.Narimanov to Moscow about the shovinistic relation of Soviet leaders to local authority of Azerbaijan, which was not in coherence with her national law and interests, caused to his dismissal from the leadership of the Republic. N.Narimanov, who had been elected the chairman of United Soviet of formed Federative Union of Transcaucasian of Soviet Socialistic Republic on March 22, 1922 and one of the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of formed Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics (USSR) on December, 1922, was entirely aparted from Azerbaijan and from all of his obligations in the Republic. It is enough to mention that Narimanov was not elected not only to Politbureou, but also to the membership of Central Committee of governing party; he only was the candidate of Central Committee. And there could not be any real responsibilities and influence in high authority of the owner of such post. Naturally, N.Narimanov who was dismissed from all executive structures, could not do anything, except of empty speech. So, the centre shaped wide opportunity for much more “devoted” staff.

On December 30, 1922, Lenin who re-established Soviet Empire under the name of USSR, much more weakened local authority and strengthened their dependence from the centre, as well as from one another at the first All-United Congress of Soviet. So, Azerbaijan SSR entered to the structure of USSR not directly, but in the structure of TSFSR. During the establishment of TSFSR, when Georgia and Armenia did not want to enter to this union, Orcanikedze openly mentioned that only Azerbaijan would loose from this union. Georgia would get much more than before and Armenia would provide its current budget behalf on Azerbaijan. The representative of Azerbaijan Samedagha Aghamalioghlu mentioned: “Azerbaijan is not the nephew of Allah. So, the oil is for everybody. This union made the oil common. This is much more tolerant”. If we take into account that the majority of posts were given to Georgians, Armenians and others and the minority-to Azerbaijanis; they stood silently to the conducted policy of the central government against Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan discrimination and its heavy results in order to preserve their posts.

So, the centre which created confrontation among the staff, could entirely concentrate whole right over internal and foreign policy, belonged to Azerbaijan SSR.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"