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The State of Salarids

The state of Salarids, as Sajid was not able to exist long in the circumstances of military-political squabbling of various dynasties and feudal clans, but this state also played an important role in the formation of statehood in Azerbaijan in post-Caliphate period.

Salarids also made Ardebil- the one of the biggest trade-craft and political centres of the Middle East at that time-the capital of their state.

After a while, Shirvan, Derbend and North-Western regions of Azerbaijan were subjected to Salarids; Salarids, as Sajid subordinated Armenia feudals to their authority too. So, all Azerbaijanian territory was again united under the supremacy of one state, which assisted to the development of craft and trade-economic relations, including the spread of trade with foreign countries. During the reign of Salarids, there began to appear trade ships in the Caspian Sea, but plundering attacks from the sea increased too. In 943, Rus made subsequent plundering campaign to Azerbaijan, which was much crueler than the campaign of 913/14. At the result of this campaign, which influenced to the economic circumstances of the region, Barda as a big city lost his position and essence and let this post to Ganja.

In 944, there was implemented the next and much greater invasion of Rus to Azerbaijan. During the reign of Marzban ibn Muhammed the frontiers of the possessions of Salarids coincided to the frontiers of the state of Sajid. Local feudals, who payed taxes to Sajid, began to pay them to Salarids and obeyed to Marzban. Despite to their support and aid in the campain to Rey (the year of 948/949) Marzban was defeated by the ruler of Hamadan and Isfahan, Rukn ed-Dovle, was captivated and sent to prison in the castle of Samiram, which was located in the South of Isfahan.

Azerbaijan, which lost its ruler, became the location of the cruel struggle for the authority among the brother of Marzban, Vahsudan, his sons and Deysam Sacid, who alsonwanted to restore his power. And in fact, Deysam managed to subordinate not only Azerbaijan till Nakhchivan, but also the part of Arminiyya with the city of Dabil (Dvin) to his authority for a while. Soon Marzban was able to liberate from the castle of Samiram and he appeared in Azerbaijan in 952/53, occupied the capital city of Ardabil. His fought with Deysam continued for some time and resulted with captivation and making blind of Deysam. So, the authority in Azerbaijan finally passed from Sajid to Salarids.

After the death of Marzban (the year of 957), there began again struggle between Vahsudan (his brother) and four sons of Marzban. His small son, Ibrahim won in this fought, obtained support and the title of “governor” of Azerbaijan from the caliph in 961/962.

Nevertheless, internal squabbling in the state caused to the weakening of the authority of Salarids. Utilizing from this situation, even in 951, the representative of the dynasty of Shaddadids, Muhammed ibn Shaddad, then his sons began the fought for the lands, subjected to Salarids, which passed from hand to hand at the result of military actions. The circumstances of Salarids were aggravated, when Ibrahim was defeated by the troops of his uncle Vahsudan in 965/966. He escaped to the country of his son in law/brother in law-Rukn ed-Dovle, the ruler of Hamadan and Isfahan and the last one aided him to prepare campaign to Azerbaijan. So, “Ibrahim made campaign to Azerbaijan in 965/966, occupied this territory and restored the authority of Salarids here”. After two years (the year of 967/968) he attacked to Shirvan and made ShirvanShah pay him annual tax, as it was during his father- Marzbans reign. Nevertheless, the realm of Salarids were ending at that time-even in 971, Ibrahim obliged to give up Gandja to Shaddadids and after a while Shaddadids occupied essential part of Arran, as well as the part of Arminiyya which was subjected to Salarids.

In 981, the owner of Tabriz, Maragha and Akhar-Abul-Kheydja- Ravvadid (the representative of the Arabic tribe of azd and the successor of Ravvad ibn Musanna, who emigrated from Yemen to Tabriz at the end of the 8th century) defeated Ibrahim, captivated him and took approximately all possessions of Salarids.

In 983, last settlement of Salarids, Dabil passed to Ravvadids’ reign. So, the state of Salarids, which existed more than 40 years collapsed.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"