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Tribal units

The collapse of the stage of primary communities and the shape of class society, occurring in various periods, in various forms in separate regions differed from one another for its characteristics, features and specialties too.

World historiography refers the beginning of class society to the Iron Age but there are some exceptions too. For example, the states of the ancient East turned into class society much earlier. Suitable climate and other natural conditions gave the ground for increasing of labour producing before the utilization of iron, at the result of which these states turned from the stage of primitive communal system into class society much earlier. So that, even four-three thousand years ago there were established magnificent states in Egypt, Mesopotamia and they were highly developed civilizations.

That’s why it was strange that, there formed thought about the shape of class society in Azerbaijan and establishment of slavery states in this territory only in the first half of 1st millennium BC. Especially, lots of antique authors mentioned that, natural and climate conditions in the regions of Azerbaijan are not worse than above-mentioned regions. In our historiography there is mentioned about the early tribal units only in 3rd and 1st millenniums BC. But such delayed social development of Azerbaijan that possessed deep relations with neighbourhood states of Mesopotamia even since the end of 4th millennium and the beginning of 3rd millenniums BC was not persuasive. So, since the last decades of the 20th century Azerbaijan scientists began to confirm that, in the regions of South Azerbaijan which were in close relations with Mesopotamia at the end of 4th millennium and at the beginning of 3rd millenniums BC, state formations were established even from 3rd millennium BC.

Namely in this period cattle breeding improved and at finally separated from farming. And at the result of it, social division of labour was shaped. There had been continuing struggle among tribes for invasion of new territories. More powerful tribes attacked to weak ones and captured their lands and treasure. Such circumstances obliged weak tribes to unite under relative, strong tribes and at the result of it, there were shaped tribal units.

In 3rd and 2nd millenniums BC the tribes of nakhch and gargar settled at the territories of Nakhichevan and Mil-Karabakh, in the north of Aras River, but the tribes of lullaby, kutium, su and turukky settled around the Urmia Lake.

There were shaped specific religious thoughts in tribal units. They worshiped to the Gods of Sky, Sun, Moon, goddess of love and fertility.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"