Home / Azerbaijan / Collapse of primitive communal system

Collapse of primitive communal system

Archaeological evidences witnessed to the essential advancements in economic and social life of tribes of Azerbaijan during the end of 2nd millennium and beginning of the 1st millennium BC. High development were reflected in metallurgy during the early Iron Age. During this period there were deepening the differences in economy in separate regions. Metalworking was much more improved in the regions, which were engaged in cattle-breeding, because of that the tribes that were engaged in cattle-breeding settled in mountainous areas and such areas were enriched with various metals. In plain zones, farming economy, gardening and growing grapevines had been developing too.

Iron century, as it called in science surrounds the 12th-11th centuries BC in our country. Our knowledge about the history of Azerbaijan during the end of 2nd millennium and the beginning of 1st millennium BC were enriched not only by cuneiform sources, but also at the result of archaeological discoveries. Major monuments of those periods were Hasanli IV, Dinkatepe II, Goytepe, Marliktepe, Sulduz, Kaluraz, monuments of Nakhichevan region and so on. The level of improvement of tribes, living in the territory of Azerbaijan was not always the same. Exactly the settlers of South Azerbaijan, who were in neighbourhood of the ancient statehoods of the Middle East that turned into class society, acquired much more success at that time. There were strengthened the unit of separate tribal groups at that time too.

There were found lots of burial mounds and etc. (such as stone boxes), referring to the late Bronze Age in Karabakh, Lenkoran, Ganja- Kazakh and Shaki-Zagatala regions. There are plenty of guns, weapons, tools of agriculture, equipment of craftsmen, jewellery in these graves as well. Settlers of this period extended in large territories. Partly nomadic cattle breeding became the leading sphere of economy at that time. Cattle-breeders climbed to the mountains, settled and formed cyclopean zones. The importance of horses as moving and carrying vehicle improved in this period. There were discovered the bones of horses as well as camels in the graves. Farming developed at that time and there were constructed water pipes too.

There were planted various types of grain cereals of that time. The extra grains were kept in jars (kyups). The remaining of grain and flour were found in the settlement of Saritepe of Kazakh region. During the archaeological excavations there were also revealed the remaining of vine, pomegranate, orange, which showed the progress of gardening in this period. Weaving was rapidly developed. The role of iron had been increasing and since the 7th century BC, it began widely utilized. Houses, as in the past times were built with bricks. Many settlements of that time, such as Garatepe in Aghdam region had defence walls. There were preserved the remaining of castle of cyclopean type in Minor Caucasus and Nakhichevan.

Soon, there were established early state formations on the ground of tribal units. They were new form of social political societies. During the Iron Age bronze items were relatively supplanted by iron items.

Ancient social, cultural, ethnocultural and religious traditions began to stay in the past since the beginning of Iron Age. The collapse and destruction of the stage of communal system and transition it into early class societies at the territory of Azerbaijan at the end of 2nd millennium and at the beginning of 1st millennium BC were proved not only by properties difference and by the founding of burial mounds of military officers of that period too. But also by the fact about the shape of small political entities, noticed in cuneiform sources.

In conclusion, we should notice that, the acquirer of iron caused to main changes in society-rapid development of agriculture, enlargement of product exchange, shape of economic innovations, durable relations with neighbourhood countries, the collapse of clan stage and at finally, the transition into social differential class society.

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"