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Azerbaijan as the part of the Akhamanid Empire

During the reign of Daria I various tribes settled in Azerbaijan areas at that period (kaspies, uties, myukies, mars and etc.) were under the subordination of Akhamani Empire and participated in Akhamani- Greek wars in the context of Akhamenids’ army.

(Despite efforts by) The foreign policy of Ahamani empire more and more failed despite efforts by Daria I. So, in 500 BC there began an uprising of Greek cities in the seaside of Aegean Sea; the campaigns of Daria XI in 490 BC and his son Kserks I (486-465 BC) in 480-479 BC to Greece were over with substantial losses. From the beginning of second half of the 5th century BC the dynasty of Akhamanis couldn’t exit from the line of unlucky. The country was surrounded by conflicts; separatism, palace quarrels were resulted with the weaken of Akhamani dynasty.

At that time, there was shaped the power in the west of Akhamenid Empire, which would destruct this state later. Macedonia, during the reign of Fillip II strengthened a lot and subordinated approximately all Greek states in the second half of the 4th century BC. Namely after the victory in Chaeronea in 338 BC, Fillip II became an absolute ruler of Iliad. So, the war was with Iran. During the preparation to the Eastern campaign Fillip II was killed and his son Alexander the Great (336-323 BC) came to the throne. The young ruler could successfully finish the preparation to Eastern campaign, created well- organized, military army (35 thousand soldiers) and inclined such prominent soldiers as Antipater, Ptolemy, Perdicca. This strictly organized army began his campaign crossing through Hellespont (Dardanelles strait) to Minor Asia in 324 BC.

After the destruction of whole tsar dynasty in Iran, the representative of opposite side of Akhamenids- Kadoman came to the throne. During the governance of this tsar who accepted the throne name of Darius III (336-330 BC) Akhamani Empire reminded the colossus, waiting his death.

Alexander, who destroyed the Akhamani troops in the battle of Qranic in 334 BC (in Minor Asia), destroyed the army, leading by Darik in the battle of Iss (in the frontiers of Northern Syria) in 332 BC; at the result of this battle Macedonian king took mother, wife, two daughters and son of Daria III as captives. Soon conquering the cities of Levant and Egypt, crossing through Tigris and Euphrates, Alexander the great again confronted with the army of Daria III in 331 BC in Gavgamel (modern Cancal) near Arbela. According to numerous sources, Persian army included soldiers from all subordinating territories of Akhamani Empire during that battle. Midians, including to the Daria’s army were headed by Atropat, caspians by Frodat, mards by Ariabarzan and Orontobat as well. In this army Albanians, kadusians, sakasens, and etc. also fought against Alexander.

Lack of talent and fear of Darius caused the defeat of his army.

The tsar of tsars run to Ecbatana and his dynasty collapsed. Alexander, who obtained the greatest victory of his life, occupied huge cities such as Babylon, Suzian and the treasure of Daria III. Soon Greeks captured the motherland of Akhamanis-Parsa (Persia). In the city of Persepolis Alexander acquired gold and silver about 120 thousand talents (1 talant=40 kilogram). During the fire in Persepolis, organized by Alexander, the manuscript of “Avesta”, the holy book of Zoroastrian religion was burned. When Alexander directed from Persepolis to Ecbatana, Daria III tried to run to the Middle Asia, but near the seashore of Caspian Sea the closest soldier of Daria III-Bess killed him. As the result of this, the Akhamani dynasty collapsed and Alexander declared himself the successor of Akhamani king.

Alexander finished his 10 years Eastern campaign by attacking India. He declared the city of Babylon as the capital of his empire, so he realized his main desire in 323 BC. He was buried in Alexandria of Egypt (his grove was hidden for 2300 years and only at the end of the 20th century, occasionally was revealed during the archaeological excavations).

About Ismayil bey Zardabli

Author of t extbook for the higher educational institutions "THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN, from ancient times to the present day"