The proclamation of the independence of Azerbaijan confronted with different processes, shaped at the result of the collapse of USSR in the region and all over the world. Essential changes in political and economic system, attempts of certain powers to preserve Azerbaijan in dependant condition as it was before, the activity of the men, who were appointed by foreign powers and the fought for throne inside of the republic created strict diffuculties on the way of successful restoration of national statehood and realization of independence circumstances in the first stages. In other words we can say the independence of “Azerbaijan stood in front of the dilemma ‘life or death’ ” (H.Aliyev).
The forces, who were in the throne were not engaged in the interests of Azerbaijan, but the interests of protection of their own throne, continued to maintain the orientation to Russia, which supported the positions of Armenian separatists, did not take into account the processes, occurring in the world in internal and foreign policy. All of them did not reply to the political and economic development of Azerbaijan, demands of provision of territorial intergrity, security and sovereignity.
During 1991-1992s, Armenia conducted big military operations relying firstly on USSR, then UIC. In September, 1991, they organized puppet “Republic of Mountainous Karabakh”, Azerbaijan regions were conguered step by step.
At night of February 25-26, 1992, Armenian armed forces and Russian 366th mechanized polk, which was placed in Khankendi attacked to the city of Khojaly. There was realized one of the wildest massacres of the 20th century-Khojaly genocide. There died 613 people, 487 of population were wounded, 1275 were captivated, 8 families were completely vanished and the city was burned. The cruel enemy even insulted the died people in order to frighten the nation.
Khojaly genocide much more intensified political confrontation in the society. With the order of nation A.Mutallibov dismissed in the session of Supreme Soviet. Most of the people believed that H.Aliyev would be able to prevent the further biggest tragedies. But, the National Front, which utilized from Karabakh problem was eager to came to the reign. Moscow tried to return Ayaz Mutallibov to the reign and used from political difficulties, extended its provocated policy in Azerbaijan. Major figure was Armenia, the aim was sole to make Azerbaijan surrender by conquering much more territories. Armenians, who were concentrated in the direction of Shusha and Lachin began to invasion by the aid of Russian technics and military formations.
At night of May 7-8, 1992, at the result of betrayal, Shusha passed to the hands of the enemy. The lost of Shusha, withdrawal of military detachments from Lachin much more aggravated political situation. By the order of Moscow, the defenders of A.Mutallibov, who declared that “We will return Shusha” did their best to return him to the reign in the session of Supreme Soviet, organized on May 14, 1992. The activists of NFA, who declared that this would be unconstitutional action, attacked to the Parliamentary building by the vehicle of military technics and armed forces, which were withdrawn from front by them. At the result of it, the building of the Parliament, President’s palace and other important state objects were captured. Isa Gambarov was elected the chairman of Supreme Soviet in the session of Parliament, on May 18, 1992.
At this time there was occurring fought for the reign in Baku; the enemy, who utilized from the withdrawal of the defence detachments from Lachin, occupied the city on May 18. There shaped the tie between separatists of Nagorno Karabakh and Armenia through Lachin corridor.
In the presidential ballots of June 7, 1992, the chairman of NFA- Abulfaz Aliyev (Elchibey) was elected the president. There began the reign of NFA-Musavat coalition. The economic and political crisis in the republic much more deepened in the period of the reign of NFA- Musavat block. After the first successful military operations on the withdrawal of Armenian agressors, there began the period of unfortunes since the autumn of 1992.
The existed ties in economy were violated. The output power of enterprises decreased, 1/3 of national profit was wasted to military necessities. Most suitable lands passed to the hands of the enemy. New administrative mechanisms did not work. The properties were plundered, the monetary, obtained from the sold goods to abroad, moved to personal accounts in foreign banks. The existing difficulties were first of all the results of wrong staff policy of governmental organs, as well as the war, which damaged the country.
The coming of uncapable men to the reign damaged Azerbaijan nation. The ruling circles, who were gradually loosing the support of nation were scared from the increasing influence of H.Aliyev and did their best to prevent his work in Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic.
The giving of electro-energy to Nakhichevan, railway information of Baku-Nakhichevan were stopped. There was created blocade around Nakhichevan AR. Autonomous Republic passed from difficult days. Thanks to the labour of the chairman of Supreme Mejlis of Nakhichevan AR-H.Aliyev successfully solved the important problems of the region. There was taken credit from Turkey. On May 28, 1992, there was opened the bridge of “Hope” (“Umid”) between Sadarak- Dilucu. The relations with Iran was regulated. Thanks to the aid of neighbourhood countries electro-energy demand of the region was gradually realized.
On October 16, 1992, the group of representatives of intelligence (91 men) appealed to H.Aliyev by the vehicle of the paper of “Ses” (“Voice”). There was expressed their request about returning to big policy in the appeal. In June, 1993, there happened military revolt in Ganja-709th military detachment excluded from the subordination of the Ministry of Defence by the aid of defenders of former commanders of military corpus – S.Husseinov; by the way, S.Husseinov had been awarded with the title of National Hero by “experienced and capable” reign. Diffucult circumstances shaped in Southern and North-Eastern regions as well – one more “commander” of National Front – S.Humbatov planned to create “Talish-Mughan Republic” in the Southern region, relying on his armed formations, simultaneously separatist elements planned to form “The state of Lezgistan” in the North-East. All these actions were directed by Moscow. Due to neutralize the revolt of June 4, the government directed about 3 thousand alive forces and military technic to Ganja. The objects of 709th military detachment, airport were constructed, 135 people were wounded. Rebels captivated 1200 soldiers, as well as the advocate of the Republic. They did not get reply to their ultimatums about dismissal of the chairman of Supreme Soviet, prime-minister and president, so they began attack to the capital.
By the call of nation and deputies Heydar Aliyev, who neutralized military opposition of S.Husseinov by political manevres and prevented the civil war in Azerbaijan intervened to this event.
On June 15, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected the chairman of Supreme Soviet. This day entered to the history as the “Day of National Rescue”. The civil war was prevented, it became possible to save the statehood and independence of Azerbaijan.
After that, when the president Abulfaz Aliyev suddenly left the capital and went to his motherland – the village of Keleki of Ordubad region, on June 24, Milli Mejlis gave all presidentional responsibities to the chairman of Supreme Soviet – Heydar Aliyev. The political development in the country finally turned into natural essence, people who gained wise leader believed to their future.
In August, 1993, Cebrayil, Fuzuli, Gubadli regions were conquered. Nation, who saw that how various forces did their best to capture the reign began to assemble around H.Aliyev. There was organized referendum about the belief to President on August 29, 1993, and 97% of participants expressed their unbelief to A.Elchibey. On September 24, 1993, Azerbaijan entered to UIC and on October 3, 1993, Azerbaijan nation elected H.Aliyev as the president with the majority of voices.
The elected as president by nation, H.Aliyev declared his decision about doing everything for strengthening state independence, providing territorial integrity and sovergnity, improving the level of life of population in his inauguration speech. The realization of these duties began from the strengthening of state discipline, legality of defence organs and army.
The absence of attention to military construction by previous governments caused to politization of military detachments, strengthening of influence of various forces over them. By the order of President there was created the state Soviet of Defence on November, 1993. On November 2, 1993, President H.Aliyev appealed to nation by television and radio and called them to defend their motherland. The appeal of President resulted with the movement of nation. There were directed the detachments, which consisted of volunters to the front. At the result of declaration of mobilization the number of armed forces increased. President personally visited front zones, got acquianted with military mood of the army. The national and state aid to the army increased.
At the result of the decisive action of Azerbaijan nation and the president Heydar Aliyev the state passed from difficult circumstances during the attempts of state revolutions in October, 1994, and in March, 1995. H.Aliyev demonstrated that he was the president who was devoted to his sword. The decisive action of the head of the state encouraged the nation and returned their belief to the future. In the mid of 1995, Azerbaijan was cleaned from illegal military formations, there was achieved socio-political stability, which was necessary for the beginning of important actions in the state construction.