The created Transcaucasian Seim on February 23, 1918, had to be the highest authority organ in the South Caucasus. But, since its creation there were serious confrontations among the included fractions-Muslim, Georgian and Armenian fractions to this Seim. Because of the sin of Armenians and Georgians, these confrontations became strained during the negatiations, which were conducted in Trabzon. Even the proclamation of Transcaucasian Independent Federative Republic on April 22, 1918, did not stop these confrontations. Much more intensified strife among fractions violated the activity of the Seim. During the subsequent negotiations, occurring between Turkey and Transcaucasian Seim in Batumi, the representative of Germany, Fon Lossov, who was only observer attracted Georgians with several promises and distracted them from negotiations. In such circumstances Georgians declared about the excluding from the content of Transcaucasian Seim and the proclamation of the independence of Georgia; After this event Transcaucasian Seim declared its self-dismissal on May 26, 1918. It was obvious, because in the absence of Georgians who played a role of mediator, Azerbaijani and Armenian nation, who were in the condition of conflict, could not stay under the united state entity. After a day on May 27, Muslim delegation of the Seim decided to create Temporary National Union of Azerbaijan, then after negotiations, there was decided the proclamation of state independence of Azerbaijan. In the Declaration of independence, which was composed by the secretary of National Union, Hasan bey Aghayev was spoken: “During the Great Revolution in Russia there was set political stage, which inclined the fall of separate parts of state organs and the left of Transcaucasus by Russian troops”.
Transcaucasian nation took the solvement of their destiny into their hands and with their own forces created Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. But, in later period of political events,Georgian nation decided to separate from the structure of Transcaucasian Federative Republic and create independent Georgian Democratic Republic.
Current political circumstances in Azerbaijan, related with liquidation of war, which occurred between Russian and Ottoman Empires, as well as the existed anarchy inside of country dictated to Azerbaijan, which consisted of Eastern and Southern Transcaucasia, the necessity of creation of its own state organization, in order to take out the peoples of Azerbaijan from heavy internal and foreign circumstances, which they were in.
On the basics of this, Muslim National Union of Azerbaijan, which was choosen by national ballots declared nationally: Azerbaijan is fully soverign nation; it consists of Southern and Eastern Transcaucasia under the authority of Azerbaijani people.
It is resolved that the form of government of independent Azerbaijani state is a democratic Republic.
The Azerbaijani Democratic Republic is determined to establish friendly relations with all especially with the neighboring nations and states.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic guarantees to all its citizens within its borders full civil and political rights, regadless of their ethnic origin, religion, class, profession or sex.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic encourages the free development of all nationalities, inhabiting its territory.
Until the Azerbaijani Constituent Assembly is convened, the supreme authority over Azerbaijan is vested in a universally elected National Council and the provisional government, responsible to this council.
The formation of the first government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was instructed to Fatali khan Khoysky by National Council. The structure of the first government of Azerbaijan was as following: Chairman of the council of Ministers and The minister of internal affairs – F.Khoysky; The military minister – Kh.Sultanov; The minister of finance and national enlightenment – N.Yusifbeyli; The minister of foreign affairs – M.H.Hajinsky; The minister of transcommunication, post and telegraph – K.Melikaslanov; The minister of justice – Kh.Mammedov; The minister of trade and industry – M.Y.Jafarov; The minister of agriculture and labour – A.Sheikhulislamov; The minister of state control – C.Hajinsky.
THE STATE CONSTRUCTION AND FOREIGN POLICY OF ADR
One of the first steps of newly created Azerbaijan state was the conclusion of Batumi agreement about the peace and friendship with Turkey (June 4, 1918). According to 4th article, Turkey took an obligation about the giving of military aid to ADR, in the case of its protection from bolsheviks and dashnaks.
Georgia demanded from the Provisional National Council of Azerbaijan to leave its territory. In the mid of June, 1918, Azerbaijan government moved from Tiflis to Ganja.
But, here, the commander of Turkish troops – Nuru pasha refused to recognize National Government. Ahmed bey Aghayev, who was his adviser also played great role in that. So, there appeared powerful opposition against the National Council. According to bourgeoisie and certain circles of land-onwners. The National Council and the created government by it stood in Ultra-left and revolutionary position. These circles which defended the alliance of Azerbaijan and Trukey began struggle against the National Council.
On June 17, in the next assembly of National Council there was suggested to dismiss the National Council. In the same day there was formed the second administrative cabinet under the leadership of F.Khoysky. The new administrative government, which consisted of twelve men, were included six members of previous cabinet and six new ministers.
The structure of new cabinet was following: F.Khoysky- chairman of the Council and the minister of justice, M.H.Hajinsky- minister of foreign affairs, B.Javanshir-minister of internal affairs, Kh.Melikaslanov-minister of ways, A.A.Amirjanov-minister of finance, Kh.Sultanov-minister of agriculture, A.Ashurov-minister of trade and industry, Kh.Rafibeyli-minister of medicine and charity.
Taking into account the strain circumstance in Azerbaijan, the government declared the military condition in the whole territory of the country.
After the March events, the political situation in Baku changed behalf on bolsheviks.
By the order of S.Shaumyan the armed forces of Baku Soviet began to attack to Ganja on June 10, 1918. At the result of immediate military aid by Turkey, according to Batumi agreement, concluded on June 4, 1918, the danger could be prevented. The fight, lasted from June 7 to July 1 of the same year, decided the destiny of this confrontation. Victory, gained over bolshevik-armenian armed forces in the battle near Goychay, prevented the attack of enemy to Ganja. But, Baku was in the hands of the enemy yet. Shaumyan and his defenders, who understood that resistance to Azerbaijan national army was meanless, decided to retire. After the dismissed of Baku SNC, the authority in the city passed to the hands of “Dictation of Sentrocaspia and Presidium Provisional Executive Committee of Soviet of workers and soldier deputees” on August 1, 1918.
Bolsheviks took in the ship “Ardagan” with stolen precious items and money and escaped to Hashtarkhan. But, by the order of Sentrocasp Dictation they were arrested and returned. Soon, these comissaries were sent to Kransnovodsk and from there to the depth of Turkmenia-between the stations of Akcha-Kuyma and Pereval with casual people, who jointed to them and killed on the 20th of September. The sin to this act put to English and Turkish men.
The one of first attempts of Sentroccaspia Dictation was to call English troops, who were in Enzeli, to Baku. At the beginning of August, English troops came to Baku by the commandance of general Denstervil. But, from the movement of entrance of English troop to Baku, it became obvious that, their forces were unessential and weak.
Azerbaijan-Turkish troops, which distructed the Sentrocaspia dictation that was consisted of dashnaks and on September 15, esers liberated Baku.
The flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan was confirmed by the setting of Azerbaijan government on June 24, 1918. The flag presented the view of white crusant and eight-angled star on red context. After that, general Tomson called Azerbaijan state the vehicle of the confrontations of Turkey, the coherence of our flag with Turkish flag was rejected in the first work-day of Provisional National Council-on November 9, 1918; it was substituted with new flag, in which was reflected white crusant and eight-angled star on blue, red and green context. Three colours of official flag of Azerbaijan Republic symbolized “Turkish national culture, modern European democracy and Islamic civilization”.
On June 27, Azerbaijan (turkish) language was declared the official language of the state.
After the victory of allied troops of Great Britain and France over Ottoman forces in the territory of Palastine and Syria, there was concluded Mudross (Mondross) treaty between Turkey and winners on October 30, 1918. According to the clauses of this treaty, Turkey had to withdraw all its troops from South Caucasus, as well as from Azerbaijan. According to this agreement, South Caucasus was proclaimed the zone of influence of Britain and there were entered English troops to Baku.
English troops entered to Baku on November 17, 1918. General Tomson appealed to the population of the city, but he did not utilize the word of “Azerbaijan” in his appeal. According to Tomson, South Caucasus was the structural part of Russia and Russia was the ally of England in Antanta block during World War I.
On November 16, 1918, after five months’ break, the National Council of Azerbaijan restored its activity in Baku and on November 20, it approved law “About the formation of Azerbaijan parliament”. As it was impossible to organize all-Azerbaijan Assembly, there was decided to reformation of National Council into legislative organ-Azerbaijan Parliament.
In the law was mentioned that in coherence with the structure of state population, there should be representatives from all settlers of Azerbaijan nation in the parliament. So, there were given 80 places to Azerbaijan, 21 places to-Armenians, 10 places-to Russians and 1 place- to germans, jews, Georgians and Polishmen in the parliament, consisted of 120 deputees. The remained five places were implied for Baku profunions (3 places) and for the Union of oil Businessmen and Trade- industrail Union (2 places). The places were strictly determined among uyezds, the Azerbaijan people, who lived in Irevan and Tiflis guberniyas (in the context of 3:1) were also taken into account.
On November 7, 1918, the chairman of National Council of Azerbaijan, leader of Musavat party, M.E.Resulzadeh opened the first assembly of Parliament, which was occurred in the gymnasium of mercy girls of H.Z.Taghiyev. And although Englishmen prevented the opening of Parliament for several times and even they could prevent the opening of assembly on the appointed day-3rd of November, the Parliament began to its activity.
In this assembly the prominent statesman, neutral (he wasn’t the member of any party) Alimardan bey Topchubashov was elected the chairman of Parliament and the member of Musavat party Hasan bey Aghayev-his assistant (vice-chairman).
There acted 10 fractions in the Parliament. The biggest parliamentary fraction was constituted by Musavat. Along with it, there acted the fraction of socialists from the representatives of “Ittihad”, “Akhrar” parties, “Hummet” organization, and the organization of “Muslim Socialist Block”, the fraction of “Dashnaksutyun” in the parliament.
Besides of it, Armenian community and the fraction of national Mensheviks represented by four members to each of them.
There acted the fractions of “non-parties” and “independents” in the Parliament.
During the first assembly F.Khoysky declared about the dismissal of provisional government and giving whole authority to parliament.
The formation of new cabinet was again entrusted to F.Khoysky.
On December 26, the structure of new executive cabinet was declared. On December 28, general Tomson ratified this cabinet of Azerbaijan.
The re-formed cabinet was coalitional. It was not created by party principles, but by the principles of entrustment of fractions to the program of government leader. At the result of strengthening of the positions of the government, the Enlgand commandance gradually abolished the limitations upon its activity in certain spheres of socio- economic life.
The government of F.Khoysky again retired in March, 1919, and on April 14, the new cabinet was led by one of the leaders of “Musavat” party, Nasib bey Yusifbeyli. His program examined the ratification of state independence of Azerbaijan by super-powers, protection of territorial integrity of the country and creation of tight relations with negihbour states.
New prime minister expressed that he was ready to restore relations of Azerbaijan with Soviet Russia in the principle of non- interference to internal affairs of each other. There were reflected many lacks along with positive results in state construction too.
Political strife, uprisings of several parties of political powers prevented the creation of unit platform and formation of state organism. The absence of professionality and concrete activity, small size of professionals, who were related with the idea of independence and etc. shaped strict difficulties in the sphere of statehood. Other feature, which aggravated the circumstances was the begun attack of Denikin’s army to Daghestan and Georgia. The capture of Port- Petrovsk and Derbent by Denikin’s army shaped real danger to Azerbaijan independence.
Due to prevent dangerous circumstances, which shaped on the border of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan government implemented strict steps. By the order of the Parliament there was created special organ, which possessed wide obligations – State Committee of Defence (SCD) in the sphere of defence. On June 11, 1919, there was declared military circumstance in the whole territory of Azerbaijan.
On June 16, 1919, there was concluded military-defence pact for 3 years between Azerbaijan and Georgia. According to clauses of the treaty, in the case of danger to their independence and territorial intergrity both sides had to implement mutual action.
At the end of August, 1919, there began withdrawal of English troops from the territory of Azerbaijan. They gave the control over ports, part of military objects, military weapons and military ships to Azerbaijan government, the others-to Daghestan troops. On the ground of received military property there was formed Caspian navy of Azerbaijan.
In the second half of 1919, Azerbaijan parliament approved line of laws for democratization of country life.
On July 21, parliament ratified “Statute to the elections to the Assembly of Azerbaijan Republic”. On August 11, there was accepted “Law about Azerbaijan citizenship” and on September 30, – “Law about press”.
From December 2 to 11, 1919, there was organized the second congress of “Musavat” party in Baku. There participated 140 delegations, including Parliamentary fraction, as well as guests from other political parties and prominent social figures in the Congress. The leader of the party, M.E.Resulzadeh made a report about the activity of the party.
The party, which discussed new agrarian program, accepted it. On December 11, there was elected Central Committee of the party, which Mammed Emin Resulzadeh (chairman), members-Hasan bey Aghayev, Mammed Hasan Hajinsky, Shafi bey Rustambeyov and Mehdi bey Hajinsky entered too.
In the beginning of 1920, internal-political life essentially stabilized. There was created normally functioned state system and organized army in a short time. At the result of great attempts of military ministry there were two pedestrian and one cavalry division in the structure of Azerbaijan army at the beginning of 1920.
There were succeded essential achievements in the sphere of national enlightenment as well. There was founded Baku State University (1919) and were prepared lecturre staff.
On January 1920, the Supreme Council of Allied States accepted resolution about the de-facto recognition of the independence of Azerbaijan. The recognition of the independence of Azerbaijan much more increased the interest. Belgium, Holland, Sweeden, Finland and other countries opened their representatives in Baku. So, the ratification of Azerbaijan Republic in international world solved the problem of its recognition and there began the involvement process of Azerbaijan to the system of multi-international relations.